A research proposal has five main components: A Statement of the Problem and Its SettingStatements of Hypothesis (or Hypotheses), Definitions, and AssumptionsAn Outline of the Procedures You Propose to Use in Testing Your Hypothesis or HypothesesA Statement of the Estimated Cost of the InvestigationA Statement of the Schedule Planned for Carrying Out the Investigation A Statement of the Problem andIts SettingIn the first part of a proposal, you should describe the problem you are proposing toinvestigate, and you should provide basic information about the situation in which theproblem has arisen. Your goal in this part is to enable a reader of your proposal toacquire a general understanding of both the problem and its background.
You shouldanswer such questions as: What is the nature of the difficulty or of the area ofuncertainty? What possible courses of action are under consideration? What decision ordecisions need to be made?In a full-fledged proposal to be submitted to your supervisor or to a potential fundingagency (but not in proposals being prepared for LIS 397.
1 in Summer 1998), thispart of the proposal should contain a selective review of the published literature, ifany, relevant to the problem Baylor University; Wong, Paul T. P. How to Write a Research Proposal. International Network on Personal Meaning. Trinity Western University; Writing Academic Proposals: Conferences, Articles, and Books. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Writing a Research Proposal. University Library. University of .
The review should clarify what distinguishes your problemand your situation from those already treated in the literature. Statements ofHypothesis (or Hypotheses), Definitions, and AssumptionsThe hypothesis that is to be tested (i.
, whose truth or falsity is to beinvestigated) should be stated as simply and positively as possible.
It is preferable tolabel the hypothesis clearly and display it in its own paragraph. Contrary to a widespread misconception, it is not necessary to phrase a hypothesis innegative terms.
It is quite all right to say directly what you hope to be able toprove; indeed, it is preferable to do so. Indirect or negatively phrased hypotheses areoften difficult and obscure, and impose an unnecessary burden on your reader.
For example, the two statements, "Male and female directors of academic librariesare equally successful, on the average, in obtaining funds for their libraries" and"Male and female academic library directors do not differ in their mean performancein obtaining funds for their libraries," are logically equivalent, but the first ismore readily understood. You will learn later in this course that it is sometimes necessary to state negativelythe statistical hypothesis that is part of a standard statistical procedure that you wantto use to solve a particular problem--i.
, to decide whether a certain general,non-statistical hypothesis is true--, but you need not be concerned about statisticalhypotheses at the beginning of LIS 397.
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For example, instead of a single hypothesis of the form"Condition X will be accompanied by Condition Y and Condition Z," it ispreferable to use two hypotheses: "Condition X will be accompanied by ConditionY," and "Condition X will be accompanied by Condition Z. First, try to avoid making causal statements in your hypothesis or hypotheses. , variables) in your problem to be relatedwithout their standing in a causal relationship, i.
, in a relationship such that one ofthe factors causes the other.
Second, since the words "significant" and "significance" havespecific technical meanings in statistics, you should strive to avoid using them in yourhypothesis. Suppose, for example, you hypothesize that a certain change in a librarypolicy will be accompanied by a sufficient increase in circulation to be worth (in yourjudgment) the trouble or cost of the change.
Then your hypothesis should say that in somany words, or should speak of a "worthwhile" increase, but should not speak ofa "significant" increase. (The technical meanings of "significant" and"significance" will be discussed in LIS 397.
1 in connection with the testing ofstatistical hypotheses.
Sample proposal | style for students online
It is notnecessary to define terms that have specific meanings and are widely understood bylibrarians and information scientists, e. " But if, for example,your hypothesis concerns ways of increasing the "use" of your library, you needto make clear just what you are going to consider as "use" in yourinvestigation and just how you will measure any increase in it.
The assumptions should deal with any factors in your problem which you think mightaffect your investigation but which you cannot control or examine directly. The point issimply to make such factors explicit in the record of your proposed investigation.
For example, as you are undoubtedly aware, the socioeconomic levels of a branchlibrary's service area affect the use of the branch by people living in that area. Thus,if you were making a comparative study of two branches, you would probably deem itdesirable to mention that the most recent census had shown their service-areasocioeconomic levels to be comparable, and that you assume that there has been noimportant change in that comparability between the time of the census and the time of yourstudy.
If, on the other hand, you had good reason to think the contrary, then you wouldneed to make a statement to that effect. AnOutline of the Procedures You Propose to Use in Testing Your Hypothesis or HypothesesThis part of your proposal should discuss what data you will collect, how you willcollect them, and how you will analyze them.
If sampling is involved, procedures forrandomizing the sampling should be explained.
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What you propose to do in testing your hypothesis must be consistent with thehypothesis itself.
For example, suppose your hypothesis says, "The users of the XYZLibrary will borrow more books each week, on the average, if the Library starts being openon Sundays during 1 - 6 p The most downloaded articles from Library & Information Science Research in the last 90 days..
" Your test of this hypothesis cannot be the conductingof a survey of the Library's users in which you ask them to say whether they would likethe Library to be open on Sunday and might borrow more books from it if it were open onSundays.
Such a survey would deal with users' opinions whereas your hypothesisdeals with users' actions. The survey might be worthwhile in itself, but not as atest of your hypothesis.
On the other hand, such a survey would be part of a proper testof a hypothesis that says, "A majority of the users of the XYZ Library will expressan opinion favoring the establishment of open hours on Sundays for the Library. "As to the analysis of the data, a full-fledged proposal going to a supervisor or apotential funding agency requires at least a brief discussion of the principal analyticprocedures (e.
A Statement of theEstimated Cost of the Investigation(Note: In order that you may be free to concentrate on thinking about theconceptual--rather than the financial--problems of your proposal, the cost estimate andschedule may be omitted from the proposals prepared for LIS 397.
)Costs should be estimated as realistically as possible Purchase and subscription proposals. The Library receives all your proposals by way of the form below and keeps you informed of the outcome of your request. The purchase proposals will be sent on to our subject managers for evaluation and possible purchase. The subscription proposals will be reviewed at year end by .
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Salary and wage costs should be allocated to the investigation on the basis of thetotal social cost involved. For example, suppose your investigation involves an estimatedtotal of 40 hours of your time as a school learning-resources specialist.
Suppose alsothat you expect to contribute these 40 hours in the form of a few minutes each daythroughout the coming year, so that you expect to squeeze the work into your normalworkday without difficulty. Nevertheless, the 40 hours represent an allocation of yourtime to the investigation instead of to whatever else you might have done in those 40hours in the way of extra effort applied to your normal duties.
Hence, the 40 hoursallocated to the investigation need to be charged at your regular hourly salary. AStatement of the Schedule Planned for Carrying Out the InvestigationsThe schedule should set forth the expected starting times or dates and, similarly, theexpected completion times or dates of the major phases of your proposed investigation.
Indoing this, you may (and will probably find it easiest to) use actual dates, such as"September 15, 199x" or "beginning with the fourth week of the SpringSemester, 199x-9x". Be as realistic as you can; try to picture yourself actuallydoing and/or directing the work involved; make reasonable estimates of the amount of timeneeded for each of the individual tasks in the proposed investigation; and then total upthose amounts.
Excerpts from an Invitationto Submit ProposalsAs an example of the application of the foregoing ideas to actual proposals, here aresome excerpts from a set of guidelines prepared by the Texas Library Association (TLA) forpersons interested in applying for TLA research grants.
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"The Proposal document should contain the following elements: 1 1 Oct 2017 - A thesis involves original research Thesis Proposal Sample Thesis Proposals Research Proposal (Example)This is a handout I often give to students when I expect them to provide a Your research proposal will be approved of health science and behavioural studies. Online library research study etc..
"In assessing requests, the Research Committee will consider the followingcriteria:1.
Reasonableness and appropriateness of budget; 5. Significance to the profession and to the community; 7.
"Though emphasizing monetary matters more than do the LIS 397.
1 guidelines above, theseTLA guidelines offer you a real example of the ways in which sources of funding tellinterested persons how to apply for money for research. Each funding agency has its ownparticular requirements for the organization of proposals to be submitted to it, but allsuch agencies agree on the essential ingredients of a proposal: explanation of the problemestimated cost Notes on Writing Your Proposal for LIS 397.
1Your proposal should employ an outline structure; i. Make sure that you include the first three components described in theseguidelines.
For a real-life proposal, be sure to include the cost estimates and the scheduledescribed above. Also for a real-life proposal, be sure to include whatever otherinformation the potential funding agency requests.