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Research examinations university of oxford

Research examinations The information provided below provides a summary of key regulations applicable to all examinations.It is your responsibility to read and adhere to the Examination Regulations.

The procedures for the submission and examination of theses are detailed in the Examination Regulations, as well as the progression form Notes of Guidance for the Examination of Research Degrees (GSO Introduction. The Oxford University Style Guide aims to provide a guide to writing and   Mathematical, Physical and Life Sciences, Medical Sciences and Social. Sciences. The Medical Sciences Division is based mainly in Headington. The   Note that American English has different rules about the use of quotation marks..The procedures for the submission and examination of theses are detailed in the Examination Regulations, as well as the progression form Notes of Guidance for the Examination of Research Degrees (GSO.

Submission and examination process Having transferred to DPhil status (or MSc by Research, MLitt, MPhil or MSt in Law) within your first six terms and then, secondly (if holding DPhil status), confirmed your DPhil status in your ninth term, you are permitted to submit a thesis for examination.Appointment of examiners Liaise with your supervisor regarding the appointment of examiners Medical Research Paper Writing Service, Order Thesis Proposal Online in USA - 4.https.www.syntaxdesign.com - SYNTAX   Medical sciences library; media services and the university writing texas a&m university libraries serves both the research and study needs of students and. Writing guides and style manuals in the  .Appointment of examiners Liaise with your supervisor regarding the appointment of examiners.3 for the examination of research degrees for the Appointment of Examiners and read the accompanying Notes of Guidance Medical Research Paper Writing Service, Order Thesis Proposal Online in USA - 4.https.www.syntaxdesign.com - SYNTAX   Medical sciences library; media services and the university writing texas a&m university libraries serves both the research and study needs of students and. Writing guides and style manuals in the  .3 for the examination of research degrees for the Appointment of Examiners and read the accompanying Notes of Guidance.Your form should be submitted, signed by all required parties, four to six weeks prior to submitting your thesis.Presentation of theses and abstracts - style and format Theses which are deemed not to meet the following requirements may not be accepted.Your thesis must be submitted in English, apart from quotations and recognised technical formulae, or where the Divisional or Faculty Board has determined otherwise.

Include an abstract with each copy of your thesis (generally bound in with the thesis).Include a title page with each copy of your thesis, giving your full name, college, thesis title and your degree.The main body of your thesis should be in double spacing with quotations and footnotes in single spacing.Your thesis should be presented on A4 (or equivalent) paper, ensuring a heavier grade of paper if your thesis is double-sided.Portrait would usually be expected, landscape may be permitted by agreement with the relevant board.

Select an easily readable font, such as Times New Roman or Arial.Font size 12pt is preferred, but a minimum font size 11pt is recommended for text and 10pt for footnotes.5cms on the left-hand edge of each page (or on the inner edge, whether left hand or right hand side, in the case of a thesis which is printed on both sides of the paper).Footnotes should normally be placed at the bottom of each page.

Where they are given at the end of each chapter or at the end of the thesis, two separate unbound copies of footnotes should also be presented, for the convenience of the examiners.Your thesis must be securely bound in either hard or soft covers.Loose-leaf or spiral binding is not acceptable.Fine Art candidates offering studio practice as part of their submission must submit, together with the written portion of their thesis, documentation in appropriate form of the exhibition or portfolio of works to be examined.Wherever possible, this documentation should be bound with the written portion of the thesis.

Submission of examiners’ copies It is recommended that you apply for the appointment of examiners two months before submitting your thesis.You must submit your examiners’ copies no later than the last day of the vacation immediately following the term in which your application for the appointment of examiners was made.You may submit the examiners’ copies of your thesis at the same time as applying for the appointment of examiners, but note that your work will not be examined until form GSO.3 has been approved and your examiners have confirmed their appointment.If your thesis title has changed, it is your responsibility to request approval of the new title on your GSO.

3 form should be completed by yourself, your supervisor and your college and submitted to your Graduate Studies Assistant.Hand the form in prior (by four to six weeks) to the submission of the thesis to the Examination Schools.The examiners have to be approved by the relevant board and the examiners’ formal acceptance received before a thesis can be sent out.

Copies of your thesis should be packed in separate, unsealed, padded envelopes, one copy per examiner.Submit two copies of your thesis to the Examination Schools, High Street, Oxford OX1 4BG.You are not permitted to submit a copy of your thesis direct to the examiners.The Submissions Desk at the Examination Schools is open between 08.A digital copy of your thesis may be requested by your examiner(s).If a digital copy is required, the Research Degrees Team will contact you directly with information on how to submit this.Please note, there is a different process being piloted for Medical Sciences Division students (see next section).Examiners are required to return the examiners’ joint report within one month of the date of the candidates viva or the receipt of the completed minor corrections.Submission of digital examiners' copies (Medical Sciences Division students only) If you wish to send a digital copy of your research thesis and additional materials to your examiners, please do so via the Research Theses Digital Submission (RTDS) application.

You should have recently received an email about RTDS from your Graduate Studies Assistant (GSA) regarding this.While submitting a digital copy of your thesis by RTDS is optional, please note that it is the only permitted mechanism for providing an digital copy of your thesis to examiners.No other mechanisms (eg email, file sharing, USB stick, CD, DVD) are permitted.Use of RTDS to upload a thesis digitally does not change the formal requirement to submit a printed copy to the Examination Schools as detailed in the previous section, and this remains the official copy.The minimum time between both examiners receiving the official copy of the thesis and a viva date remains at four weeks (as referred to under ‘the oral examination or viva’ section below).

Adjustments to assessment arrangements If you have a disability and wish to request adjustments to the assessment arrangements for your transfer and confirmation of status assessments or final viva arrangements, the application must be made using form GSO.19, outlining the requested adjustments and reasons.Adjustments can be requested at any point from offer of a place to submission, at the point of applying for Transfer of Status, at the point of applying for Confirmation of Status or at the point of applying for final viva/appointment of examiners.Please contact your GSA or departmental graduate administrator if you require more information.The oral examination or viva Your internal examiner is responsible for making all the arrangements for your viva examination and will contact you to arrange a date (usually within a month of receiving your thesis).

You must not contact your examiners yourself, except when you have to agree a date for the viva.If your examiners do not contact you within a month of receiving your thesis, the Research Degrees team will contact them on your behalf to enquire about a viva date.If you wish to ask for an early viva (one to two months following submission), the application setting out the reasons for your request must be made using form GSO.16 at the same time as you submit your form for the appointment of examiners GSO.

You may not request an early viva to take place within a month of submitting your thesis.Your thesis will only be dispatched to the examiners once both the completed GSO.3 form and their formal acceptance to act as an examiner have been received.3 not arriving promptly with the Research Degrees Team or a failure to elicit a response from the examiners to their invitation.

The regulations stipulate that examiners must have the thesis a minimum of four weeks before the date of the viva.In exceptional circumstances the Proctors may permit a viva to be held earlier but this is not guaranteed.You must present for a viva in academic dress; sub fusc and a gown.The gown should be that of your present status (i.Student for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy), the gown and hood of the degree held from your own university, or, if you are a University of Oxford graduate, the gown and hood of your University of Oxford degree. Special dispensation may be granted in certain circumstances, for example, health reasons, religious orders and members of the armed services.Please contact the Research Degrees Team for further information on how to apply.Bring a copy of your thesis with you to the viva.Minor corrections Your examiners may recommend that you complete minor corrections before they recommend award of the degree.

Your examiners will provide you with a list of the required corrections.If you have not received the list of corrections within two weeks of the viva, then you should contact the Graduate Studies Assistant for your subject area.The University expects that these minor corrections will be completed to the satisfaction of your internal examiner within one month of being issued.If, for exceptional reasons, additional time is needed you may apply for an additional one month by submitting a copy of form GSO. Extension of Time for Completion of Minor or Major Corrections.If you fail to complete your corrections within the time allowed your name will be removed from the Graduate Register and a reinstatement application will be required.Major corrections and referral A ‘major corrections’ option for DPhil examination outcomes give the examiners of research degrees an outcome option mid-way between minor corrections and referral.Corrections must be made and submitted within six months or the letter confirming the major corrections, although Examination Boards may grant an extension of up to three months on receipt of a GSO.Major corrections theses should be submitted to the Examination Schools.It is not permitted for a thesis to be submitted directly to the examiners.Candidates whose thesis is referred will be required to provide at resubmission a separate report indicating the specific changes made to the revised thesis; the word limit of which has been stipulated by divisional boards.The report will act as a guide to how the candidate has addressed examiners’ comments, and will direct examiners to the appropriate sections.The outcome types, time limits for changes and report lengths for each of the research degrees are summarised in the tables below.

Doctor of Philosophy Neurosurgery is the official publication of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.The goal of Neurosurgery is to provide a medium for the prompt publication of scientific papers dealing with clinical or experimental neurosurgery, solicited manuscripts on specific subjects from experts, case reports, and other information of interest to neurosurgeons.EDITORIAL POLICIES Peer Review NEUROSURGERY® Publications operates a double-blind peer review process, in which both authors and reviewers are anonymous.For further information, see Oyesiku, Nelson M.IMPORTANT NOTE: All reviews will be considered confidential, and should not be made publicly available without the express permission of the manuscript’s authors (which should be requested through the Editorial Office) and the journal’s Editor in Chief.Originality of the Manuscript All authors must certify that their manuscript is a unique submission and is not being considered for publication by any other source in any medium and that it has not been published, in part or in full, in any form.Previous Presentations Works that have been previously presented at a meeting or that have been published as an abstract will be considered for publication as full-length papers.

Authors should provide details of the previous presentation(s) on the title page.Details should include the name of annual meeting, sponsoring society (if applicable), date, location, and presentation type (i.Major Update of a Previous Study If the submitted manuscript is a major update of the results of a previously published study (not exclusive to NEUROSURGERY® Publications), authors must disclose this in their cover letter.The editor will review all previous published material to determine whether the new submission demonstrates significant new information or statistical force to warrant further consideration.As a general rule, such updates should show an increase in either (1) the number of patients by 50% or more OR (2) the reported mean follow up by at least 2 years.Resubmission of Rejected Manuscripts Neurosurgery and to provide a timely response to the authors.

 Neurosurgery publishes only a very small percentage of submitted articles.

Unless otherwise indicated in the decision letter, rejections preclude resubmission to any NEUROSURGERY® Publications title.Authors wishing to have a previously rejected manuscript reconsidered for review should first email the editorial office providing an explanation as to why they believe re-review is warranted.Previously rejected papers that are resubmitted will be removed by the Editorial Office.Permissions All material included with a submission must be owned solely by the author(s).Any material not meeting this requirement must be accompanied by a written statement permitting use by NEUROSURGERY® Publications.

Obtaining this permission is the responsibility of the author(s).These requirements apply to the following materials: Previously published materials require permission from the original publisher (copyright holder).Direct quotations of more than 50 words., manuscript in preparation) require permission from the appropriate investigator.Credit must be included in the applicable location (figure legend, table legend, in-text, etc.) for all material being reused with permission., text, figures, tables, illustrations, or audio/video files) from copyrighted works are included in the submitted manuscript, a written release will be secured by the authors prior to submission, and credit to the original publication will be properly acknowledged.Should the editor or publisher request copies of such written releases, authors shall provide them in a timely manner.Further guidelines on clearing permissions can be found here and to reuse Oxford University Press material please visit: /en/access-purchase/ Product Information Medications, materials, and devices must be identified by full nonproprietary name as well as brand name and the manufacturer's name, city, state, and country.Place this information in parentheses in the text, not in a footnote.Manuscript Ownership In consideration of the editor's and publisher's expense and effort in reviewing, editing, and publishing submitted manuscripts, and of the professional benefits related to its publication, authors are required to transfer, assign, and otherwise convey to the Congress of Neurological Surgeons upon acceptance of the manuscript by NEUROSURGERY® Publications all rights, title, and interest in the manuscript, including copyright ownership, together with full right and authority to publish the manuscript (including accompanying digital supplementary content) in all forms and media and to claim worldwide copyright for that published manuscript.

Exceptions include manuscripts that are protected by UK Crown Copyright, are in the public domain (e.US Government Publications) or those cannot be fully licensed as requested above.Authors will be required to provide detailed information in the Assignment of Copyright Form which is completed once the accepted manuscript is delivered to Oxford University Press for publication.Author Agreement Form Prior to fully submitting a manuscript for consideration, the corresponding author must complete the Author Agreement Form which is completed during the “Additional Information” step of the submission process.

The corresponding author completes this form on behalf of all listed co-authors.Once a manuscript is submitted, all listed co-authors will receive an authorship confirmation email.This email will give the co-authors the opportunity to (1) confirm authorship and (2) give the corresponding author consent to act on their behalf.All co-authors will need to respond to this email before an accepted manuscript can be transmitted to the Publisher.

Instructions to authors qjm an international journal of medicine nbsp

Assignment of Copyright The Assignment of Copyright form is completed by the corresponding author once the accepted manuscript is delivered to Oxford University Press for publication.

An email will be sent to the corresponding author with a link to Oxford University Press’s Author Services, where the corresponding author will follow the steps to select and complete the appropriate copyright form.In the case of a multi-authored article, the corresponding author agrees to confirm that h/she is authorized by his/her co-authors to enter this assignment on their behalf Instructions for authors of new research articles Science Translational nbsp.In the case of a multi-authored article, the corresponding author agrees to confirm that h/she is authorized by his/her co-authors to enter this assignment on their behalf.

Funding Compliance A number of research funding agencies now require or request authors to submit the post-print (the article after peer review and acceptance but not the final published article) to a repository that is accessible online by all without charge.As a service to our authors, Oxford University Press will identify to the National Library of Medicine (NLM) articles that require deposit and transmits the post-print of an article based on research funded in whole or in part by the National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, or other foundation(s) requiring open access to PubMed Central.Self-archiving policy Open Access Oxford University Press ensures that authors can fully comply with the public access requirements of major funding bodies worldwide The Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences publishes articles representing the full range of medical sciences pertaining to aging. Appropriate areas include, but are not limited to, basic medical sciences, clinical epidemiology, clinical research, and health services research from professions such as medicine, dentistry,  .

Self-archiving policy Open Access Oxford University Press ensures that authors can fully comply with the public access requirements of major funding bodies worldwide.

Additionally, all authors who choose the open access option will have their final published article deposited into PubMed Central.Hybrid Open Access is offered to authors whose articles have been accepted for publication.With this choice, articles are made freely available online immediately upon publication.Authors may take advantage of the open access option at the point of acceptance to ensure that this choice has no influence on the peer-review and acceptance process.These articles are subject to the Journal’s standard peer review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

Neurosurgery authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication.After your manuscript is accepted, the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory license to publish agreement.As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access.If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.Licenses Neurosurgery All other authors may use the following licenses: • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Charges Charges for CC BY-NC/CC BY-NC-ND: Regular charge: £1875/ $3000 / €2363 Charge for CNS Members: £1717/ $2500/ €2202 List B Developing country charge*: £938.

00List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0 Charges for CC BY: List B Developing country charge*: £1,187.00 List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0 *Visit our developing countries page (click here for a list of qualifying countries).You can pay open access charges using our Author Services site.This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post.Please note that these charges are in addition to any page/color charges that may apply.Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge.

For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes.Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution, and ensure your account for your own local VAT correctly.FAQ for Open Access Authorship Limitations and Requirements NEUROSURGERY® Publications adheres to the Authorship Requirements as defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).The ICMJE recommends that authorship be based on the following 4 criteria: Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND Final approval of the version to be published; AND Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.Each listed author should have made a major contribution to the conception or completion of the manuscript.

Additionally, each author should be willing to share responsibility for the content of the submission.Please note: Honorary or guest authorship is not acceptable.Acquisition of funding and provision of technical services, patients, or materials, while they may be essential to the work, are not in themselves sufficient contributions to justify authorship.For Case Reports, written authorship justification should be included in the cover letter if the number of authors exceeds four.For more information, please visit the ICMJE’s position on the role of authors and contributors at /recommendations/browse/roles-and-responsibilities/ .

Changes to Authorship that occur between revisions or prior to publication must be accompanied by a signed copy of the Journal’s Authorization to Change Authorship Form.Note: It is the author’s responsibility to inform the Journal of a change in authorship at any stage during the submission process.Conflicts of Interest All authors are expected to disclose any conflict(s) of interest, financial or personal, that might bias or be seen to bias their work at the time of submission.Examples include personal or institutional financial interest in drugs, materials, or devices described in the submission.The source of financial support and industry affiliations of all those involved must be stated.

All grants pertinent to the submission must be listed.Any conflicts should be disclosed in the Author Agreement form AND in the title page file.If no conflict(s) exists, it must be stated so explicitly.Disclosure statements are published with each article.For more information, please visit the ICMJE’s position on the reporting of conflicts of interest at /recommendations/browse/roles-and-responsibilities/ #two.

Ethics Human Subjects Manuscripts that involve research conducted on human subjects must follow the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki ( /en/30publications/10policies/b3) and include a statement in the Methods section stating that the experimental protocol and informed consent were approved by the Institutional Review Board, and that all subjects gave informed consent.If IRB approval or patient consent was not sought or obtained, authors should include an explanation in the Methods section.Authors should indicate the mechanism used for reviewing the ethics of the research conducted in their cover letter.Animal Subjects Manuscripts that report animal experiments must include a statement in the Methods section stating that the study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and that the animal care complied with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council.Washington: National Academy Press, 1996, / ?record id=5140).

Authors should indicate the mechanism used for reviewing the ethics of the research conducted in their cover letter.Note: Though not required at the time of submission, authors should be prepared to provide evidence of IRB/Ethics Committee adherence if requested by the Editor.Patient Consent It is the policy of the Journal that no identifiable protected health information of any person may be included in any manuscript submitted to or published by NEUROSURGERY® Publications.This policy includes, but is not limited to, any identifiable protected health information subject to applicable laws and regulations concerning the privacy and/or security of personal information under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 and other U.federal and state laws relating to privacy and security of personally identifiable information, the European Union Directive 95/46/EC and member state implementing directives, Canada's Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, India's Information Technology Act and related Privacy Rules (collectively referred to herein as “PHI”).* *The PHI identifiers that must be fully anonymized and de-identified include: Names; All geographic subdivisions smaller than a State, including street address, city, county, precinct, zip code, and their equivalent geocodes, except for the initial three digits of a zip code if, according to the current publicly available data from the Bureau of the Census: 1.The geographic unit formed by combining all zip codes with the same three initial digits contains more than 20,000 people; and 2.The initial three digits of a zip code for all such geographic units containing 20,000 or fewer people is changed to 000; All elements of dates (except year) for dates directly related to an individual, including birth date, admission date, discharge date, date of death; and all ages over 89 and all elements of dates (including year) indicative of such age, except that such ages and elements may be aggregated into a single category of age 90 or older; Telephone numbers; Device identifiers and serial numbers; Web Universal Resource Locators (URLs); Internet Protocol (IP) address numbers; Biometric identifiers, including finger and voice prints; Facial images or any comparable identifying physical marks, tattoos, or characteristics; and Any other unique identifying number, code, or other “unique characteristic” associated with the individual which would make it identifiable to the individual, or the author has actual knowledge that the information about the subject could be used alone or in combination with other information to identify the individual.Authors should pay close attention to images that contain identifiable individual patient characteristics or data such as eyes, date of birth, case number, initials, birthmarks, etc.

Prior to submission of any manuscript, the author(s) shall take all steps necessary to ensure that (1) there is no PHI contained in any text, data, or images in the manuscript; and (2) all pre-existing PHI, if any, has been fully anonymized and de-identified.As a condition of submission to the NEUROSURGERY® Publications all authors must warrant that he or she has obtained, prior to submission, written releases from patients whose names or likenesses are submitted as part of the Work.Should the Journal or Publisher request copies of such written releases, authors shall provide them in a timely manner.In addition to the foregoing requirements, each author must ensure that: Each authorizing individual, or the individual's legal guardian or other person with legal authority to act on the individual's behalf who may be identified in any video, recording, photograph, image, illustration or case report (or in any other identifiable form) relating to a proposed manuscript is made aware in advance of the fact that such photographs are being taken or such video, recording, photograph, image, illustration or report is being made, and of all the purposes for which they might be used, including disclosure to NEUROSURGERY® Publications and use by NEUROSURGERY® Publications and any affiliated publication.Such individual, legal guardian or person with legal authority must give his/her explicit written authorization in writing.

If such authorization is made subject to any conditions (for example, adopting measures to prevent personal identification of the person concerned), NEUROSURGERY® Publications must be made aware in writing of all such conditions.Particular care should be taken where children are concerned (in particular where a child has special needs or learning disabilities), where an individual's head or face appears, or where reference is made to an individual's name or other personal details.In the case of a child, if parents or guardians disagree on the use of the images (in any form) of that child, then authorization should be deemed not to have been given and those images should not be used.It is important to ensure that only images of children in suitable dress are used in order to reduce the risk of images being used inappropriately.

Even if authorization has been obtained, care must be taken to ensure that the portrayals and captioning of any individual are respectful and could not be seen as denigrating that individual.

Research Reporting Guidelines NEUROSURGERY® Publications endorses several reporting guidelines and requires authors to submit their research articles in accordance with the appropriate statement(s) and checklist(s).Completed applicable checklists and flow diagrams must be included with submissions (the item ‘Reporting Guideline Checklist’ is available for submission).A few of the most commonly applicable reporting guidelines are outlined below.However, authors should consult the EQUATOR Network website ( ), which maintains a useful, up-to-date list of guidelines as they are published, with links to articles and checklists.It is the author’s responsibility to ensure that their paper adheres to the appropriate reporting guideline and is properly formatted as such.

For further information regarding this policy, see Barker, Fred G II and Oyesiku, Nelson M.Authors should include in the Methods section a phrase indicating which reporting guideline has been implemented in their manuscript.

Checklist and flow diagram templates for the guidelines outlined below are available on the home page of each Journal’s Editorial Manager website ( /neu and /ons).CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Reports of randomized trials must conform to the revised CONSORT guidelines and should be submitted with their protocols and a completed CONSORT checklist.All reports of clinical trials must include a summary of previous research findings and explain how this trial affects this summary.Cluster randomized trials should be reported according to extended CONSORT guidelines.Randomized trials reporting harms must be described according to extended CONSORT guidelines.

All reports of randomized trials should include a section entitled “Randomization and masking” within the methods section.For information regarding CONSORT guidelines, please visit .PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Systematic reviews and meta-analyses must be reported according to PRISMA guidelines, an evidence based minimum set of items for reporting in systematic reviews and meta-analyses.The aim of the PRISMA Statement is to help authors improve the reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.The PRISMA Statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram.

For information regarding PRISMA guidelines, please visit .MOOSE (Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies should be reported according to MOOSE guidelines.The MOOSE guidelines are accessible via /reporting-guidelines/ STARD (Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) Investigators reporting studies of diagnostic accuracy should adhere to the STARD statement.The objective of the STARD initiative is to improve the accuracy and completeness of reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy, to allow readers to assess the potential for bias in the study (internal validity) and to evaluate its generalizability (external validity).The STARD statement consists of a 25-item checklist and recommends the use of a flow diagram to describe the design of the study and the flow of patients.

For information regarding STARD guidelines, please visit .STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) Observational research comprises several study designs and many topic areas.The STROBE statement should be used when reporting such research.The STROBE recommendations apply to the three main analytical designs that are used in observational research: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies.While STROBE recommendations do not specifically address case reports and case series, many of the key elements in STROBE apply to these designs; therefore authors who report such studies should apply the recommendations as far as feasible.

The STROBE statement consists of a 22-item checklist.For information regarding STROBE guidelines, please visit .CARE (Consensus-based Clinical Case Reporting Guideline Development) The CARE guidelines are intended to ensure “completeness, transparency and data analysis in case reports and data from the point of care.” Though these guidelines will not apply to each and every case report submitted to the Journal they should be consulted by the authors for relevancy prior to submission.More information regarding the CARE guidelines along with the 14-item checklist can be located by visiting /reporting-guidelines/care/.

Clinical Trial Registration In line with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations, NEUROSURGERY® Publications requires that all clinical trials (regardless as to country of origin) be registered in a public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrollment as a condition of submission to the Journal.According to the ICMJE, a clinical trial is any research project that prospectively assigns people or a group of people to an intervention, with or without concurrent comparison or control groups, to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a health-related intervention and a health outcome.Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) The editors of NEUROSURGERY® Publications adhere to the COPE Code of Conduct, which can be found at /resources/code-conduct.Charges of academic dishonesty, including plagiarism, duplicate and redundant publication will be managed according to COPE Guidelines.Plagiarism As defined by the World Association of Medical Editors: Plagiarism is the use of others' published and unpublished ideas or words (or other intellectual property) without attribution or permission, and presenting them as new and original rather than derived from an existing source.

The intent and effect of plagiarism is to mislead the reader as to the contributions of the plagiarizer.This applies whether the ideas or words are taken from abstracts, research grant applications, Institutional Review Board applications, or unpublished or published manuscripts in any publication format (print or electronic).Plagiarism is scientific misconduct and will be addressed as such.When plagiarism is detected at any time before publication, the NEUROSURGERY® Publications Editorial Office will alert the author, asking her or him to rewrite or quote exactly and to cite the original source., >25% of the original submission), the editors will take appropriate action to notify both readers and the author’s employers of the infraction.NEUROSURGERY® Publications is a member of CrossCheck by CrossRef and iThenticate.iThenticate checks submissions against millions of published research papers, and billions of web content.

Authors, researchers and freelancers can also use iThenticate to screen their work before submission by visiting .

Self-Plagiarism NEUROSURGERY® Publications actively checks accepted manuscripts for self-plagiarism prior to publication.Self-plagiarism is not a tolerated practice.Manuscripts containing high-levels of self-plagiarism (>25% of the original in question) will be reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief for originality.Authors found to have self-plagiarized will be asked to rewrite those portions of their accepted manuscripts and or to quote exactly and cite the original source.Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium NEUROSURGERY® Publications is a member of the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium.

The Consortium is an alliance of neuroscience journals that have agreed to accept manuscript reviews from each other.If you submit a revision of your manuscript to another Consortium journal, we can forward the reviews of your manuscript to that journal, should you decide this might be helpful.

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You can find a list of Consortium journals and details about forwarding reviews at .ONLINE SUBMISSION Neurosurgery must be submitted online First-time Users Please click the Register button at /neu.Upon successful registration, you will be sent an email providing your username and password UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD STYLE GUIDE.

Upon successful registration, you will be sent an email providing your username and password.

Save this information for future reference.Please note: Authors need only register as a new user under either Neurosurgery or Neurosurgery Science Translational Medicine publishes articles containing original, science-based research that report successful progress toward improvements in clinical   Submit your Research Article to Science Translational Medicine in Microsoft Word's .docx format. Use of   Electronic files should be formatted for U.S. letter paper..Please note: Authors need only register as a new user under either Neurosurgery or Neurosurgery.Registration on one site automatically registers the user on the other site.Note: If you have received an email from us with an assigned username and password, or if you are a repeat user, do not register again.Once you have an assigned username and password, you do not have to re-register.Authors who have a registered ORCID iD can now login to Editorial Manager using those credentials.To find out more about ORCID, please visit .Authors Please click the Login button from the menu at the top of the page and login to the system as an author.Submit your manuscript according to the author instructions.

You will be able to track the progress of your manuscript through the system.If you experience any problems, please contact the Editorial Office via phone (+1)404.MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION The title page should be created as a separate document and must include the following: Full title of the paper—short, clear, and specific.

Please use 1-2 article keywords in the title.Abbreviations and declarative statements should not be used in article titles.All authors’ full names, each followed by his/her highest academic degree(s) (e., FACP, FAAN, FACS) and honorary designations should be omitted.Departmental and institutional affiliations for each author, including the city, state or province, and country (use superscript numbers to identify each author with his/her corresponding affiliation).Details should include the name of the annual meeting, sponsoring society (if applicable), date, location, and presentation type (i.Disclosure of funding received for this work from any of the following organizations: National Institutes of Health (NIH); Wellcome Trust; Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI); and other foundation(s) requiring open access.The source of financial support and industry affiliations of all those involved must be stated.In addition, authors must state whether they have any personal or institutional financial interest in drugs, materials, or devices described in their submissions.Concise acknowledgment of contributors not listed as authors is welcome.Do not include Acknowledgements within the manuscript document.Corresponding Author contact information including the name, address, and email address of the author responsible for correspondence, form(s) competition, and galley proof review.

Clearly indicate if changes of address are anticipated, and include forwarding addresses.

It is the Corresponding Author's responsibility to notify the Editorial Office of changes of address.Only the Corresponding Author should communicate with the Editorial Office for matters regarding each manuscript.Abstract For article types requiring a structured abstract (not including Case Reports and Study Protocols), the abstract should be no more than 250 words, summarizing the problem being considered, how the study was performed, the salient results, and the principal conclusions under the following headings: Background: Address the background and rationale for the study.Objective: State the precise objective or study question addressed.Methods: Define the basic design, procedures, and/or setting in which the study was conducted.

Results: Present significant data and observations gathered.Conclusion: Interpret findings and give principal conclusions.Abstracts for Research-Human-Study Protocols should be no more than 250 words and should summarize all the key elements of the protocol under the following headings: Background; Objective; Methods; Expected Outcomes; Discussion.Review (qualitative), Legacy-Institutions and People, Special Article, and Surgical Video article types require an unstructured abstract of no more than 250 words.Abstracts for Case Reports contain the following headings: Background and Importance: State the significance of the issue and importance of the case(s).

Clinical Presentation: Define the case(s) presented, pertinent attendant issues, and observations.Conclusion: State outcome of Keywords/Running Title On the same page, provide a running title (short title) of 3 to 5 words, and list, in alphabetical order, keywords (maximum of 7) for coding and indexing.Consult the Index Medicus for appropriate keywords.Manuscript Subheadings Research Introduction: Brief description of the background that led to the study (current results and conclusions should not be included).Methods: Details relevant to the conduct of the study.

Wherever possible give numbers of subjects studied (not percentages alone).Statistical methods should be clearly explained at the end of this section.Results: Work should be reported in SI units.Undue repetition in text and tables should be avoided.Comment on validity and significance of results is appropriate but broader discussion of their implication is restricted to the next section.

Subheadings that aid clarity of presentation within this and the previous section are encouraged.Discussion: The nature and findings of the study are placed in context of other relevant published data.Caveats to the study should be discussed.Avoid undue extrapolation from the study topic.If lengthy, please separate into sections with subheadings to enhance readability.

Conclusion: Should restate the purpose of the study and primary empirical questions that were asked, and should restate the most significant findings.The conclusions should aid the reader in understanding the significance of the study in contributing to the base of knowledge about the subject.Research articles that adhere to a reporting guideline (e., STROBE, CONSORT, PRISMA) should include subheadings, particularly in the Results and Discussion, that address specific items listed in the associated checklist.

Case Report Background and Importance: State the significance/uniqueness of the case in relation to the existing literature.Why is it being reported? Clinical Presentation: Describe the clinical features of the case(s), and the pertinent observations (imaging, pathology operative findings as appropriate).When applicable, use subheadings for clarity.Discussion: Discuss the relevant literature in the context of the current case.

The discussion need not be exhaustive, and it should focus specifically on how the case differs from existing literature and what lessons can be gleaned from dissemination of its findings Conclusion: State outcome of case(s) and recommendations/lessons.Editorial Requirements Non–Native Speakers of English Authors who are not native speakers of English who submit manuscripts to international journals often receive negative comments from referees or editors about the English–language usage in their manuscripts, and these problems can contribute to a decision to reject a paper.To help reduce the possibility of such problems, we strongly encourage such authors to take at least one of the following steps: Have your manuscript reviewed for clarity by a colleague whose native language is English.In an effort to better assist our authors in securing translation/editing services, NEUROSURGERY® Publications has partnered with American Journal Experts (AJE) to provide these services at a discount.AJE has helped thousands of researchers around the world to present their research in polished English suitable for publication in scientific and medical journals.

To take advantage of this partnership, visit /p/neuro15 for a discount off of all AJE services.Note: If this is your first purchase through AJE, the link should automatically append the promo code to your account.If you already have an account with AJE, please enter “NEURO15" as a promo code at the payment step of the submission process to receive the discount.*Please note: this is a one-time discount.The use of such a service is at the author's own expense and risk and does not guarantee that the article will be accepted.

NEUROSURGERY® Publications accepts no responsibility for the interaction between the author and the service provider or for the quality of the work performed.Statistical Analysis For manuscripts that report statistics, the Editor requires that the authors provide evidence of statistical consultation (or at least expertise); a biostatistician may review such manuscripts during the review process.In the Methods section: Indicate the prospectively determined P value that was taken to indicate a significant difference.Cite Identify any statistics software used.

In the Results section: Note that following the AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors, 10th Edition.

New York: Oxford University Press; 2007, page 889, the Journal does not use a zero to the left of the decimal point, because “…statistically it is not possible to prove or disprove the null hypothesis completely when only a sample of the population is tested (P cannot equal 0 or 1, except by rounding).” Report actual P values rather than thresholds: not just whether the P value was above or below the significant-difference threshold.” P should be expressed to 2 digits for P ≥ .01, because expressing P to more than 3 digits does not add useful information.999 for example, it should be expressed as P > .

Abbreviations, Nomenclature and Symbols These should conform to those found in the AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors, 10 th Edition.The use of standard international units is encouraged.Note: The use of nonstandard abbreviations is strongly discouraged.In accepted manuscripts, use of such abbreviations may cause a delay in the copyediting process.

Neurosurgery ARTICLE TYPES Research-LaboratoryThese represent a substantial body of laboratory or clinical work.Additional data may be presented as supplementary information, which will be published online should the article be accepted.A structured abstract of no more than 250 words is required.Maximum length: 3,000 words of text (not including abstract, references, figures, tables, and online-only material).For observational epidemiological studies and diagnostic accuracy studies, see Research Reporting Guidelines for further requirements.

Research-Human-Study Protocols Study Protocols describe proposed or ongoing research, and provide a detailed account of the hypothesis, rationale, and methodology of the planned study.The journal will consider Study Protocols of proposed or ongoing trials (provided they have not completed patient recruitment at the time of submission).Study Protocols will usually be published without further peer review if the study has received institutional IRB and ethics approval, and peer-review and grant funding from a major extramural funding body.We are unable to consider Study Protocols without ethics or IRB approval or major extramural funding at the time of submission.All clinical trials must be registered at an appropriate online public registry, and registration information should be included with the submission.

Examples of major funding agencies including, but not limited to: Academy of Finland (Finland) Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (Sweden) Swedish Research Council (Sweden) Wellcome Trust (UK) Study Protocols accepted for publication will be citable and accessible online and in print.Investigators must consent in principle to submit all or a substantial portion of the primary manuscript to Neurosurgery at the conclusion of the study, which the Journal will send for peer-review.The Journal will provisionally commit to rapidly publish the main clinical findings of the study absent major deviations from protocol, poor reporting or over interpretation of data, loss of originality, or undue delay after the planned submission date.The Journal will continue to accept for consideration manuscripts whose protocols have not been previously submitted to Neurosurgery.Maximum length: 3,000 words of text (not including abstract, references, figures, tables, and online-only material).

For protocols of randomized controlled trials, see Research Reporting Guidelines for information regarding CONSORT.Study Protocols should include the following information arranged according to these subheadings: Abstract: The abstract should be no more than 250 words and should summarize all the key elements of the protocol including the rationale, objectives, methods, populations, time frame, and expected outcomes under the following subheadings: Background; Objective; Methods; Expected Outcomes; Discussion.General Information: Name and address of the sponsor/funding agency.Name and title of the investigator(s) responsible for conducting the research, and the address and telephone number(s) of the research site(s), including responsibilities of each.Name(s) and address(es) of the clinical laboratory( ies) and other medical department(s) or institutions involved in the research.

Rationale and Background Information: The rationale specifies the reasons for conducting the research in light of extant knowledge.It should include a statement of the question, issue, or problem that forms the basis of the project, the etiology of this problem, and its possible solutions.It should put the proposal in proper context.It should answer the question of why and what: why the research needs to be done and what will be its relevance.Study Goals and Objectives: Goals are broad statements of what the proposal hopes to accomplish.

Specific objectives are statements of the research question(s).Objectives should be straightforward, simple, and specific.They should be stated as bullets points or enumerated.Study Design: The design of the study should include information on the type of study, the research population or the sampling frame, inclusion and exclusion criteria, withdrawal criteria, and the expected duration of the study, etc.

For example, a study may be described as basic science research, epidemiological research, observational, or interventional; if observational, it may be either descriptive or analytic, if analytic it could either be cross-sectional or longitudinal.

If experimental, it may be described as a controlled or a non-controlled study.Methodology: This should include the design of the study, the setting, the type of participants or materials involved, a clear description of all interventions (including a description of the drug/device that is being tested), comparisons to be made, procedures to be used, measurements to be taken, observations to be derived, laboratory investigations to be collected, and the type of analysis used, including a power calculation if appropriate.Interventions could also be in the realm of epidemiology or outcomes sciences (e.

Moderate alcohol consumption as risk factor for adverse brain the bmj

Standardized or previously documented procedures and techniques should be described and appropriately referenced.Instruments that are to be used to collect information (questionnaires, case report forms, etc.) may be provided as supplemental material at the discretion of the author .) may be provided as supplemental material at the discretion of the author.

In the case of a randomized controlled trial, additional information on the process of randomization and blinding, description of stopping rules for individuals, for part or entirety of the study, the procedures and conditions for breaking the codes, etc.A graphic outline of the study design and procedures using a flow diagram must be provided 6 Jun 2017 - These results support the recent reduction in alcohol guidance in the UK and question the current limits recommended in the US.   with longitudinal data of the Whitehall II sub- study; MSD/IDREC/C1/2011/71) by the University of Oxford medical sciences interdivisional research ethics committee..A graphic outline of the study design and procedures using a flow diagram must be provided.This should include the timing of assessments.Discussion: This can include discussion of any practical or operational issues involved in performing the study, and any other issues linked to the study that do not fall within the previous headings.Trial Status: Investigators should inform the journal of the status of their study at the time of submission.The journal will consider study protocol articles for proposed or ongoing trials provided they have not completed patient recruitment at the time of submission.

Safety Considerations: Safety aspects should be provided in the protocol on how the safety of research participants will be ensured.This can include procedures for recording and reporting adverse events and their follow-up, for example.Follow-up: The research protocol must give a clear indication of what follow-up will be provided to the research participants and for how long.This may include a follow-up especially for adverse events, even after data collection for the research study is completed.Data Management and Statistical Analysis: The protocol should provide information on how the data will be managed, including data handling and coding for computer analysis, monitoring, and verification.

The statistical methods proposed for the analysis of data should be clearly outlined, including reasons for the sample size selected, power of the study, level of significance to be used, procedures for accounting for any missing or spurious data, etc.For projects involving qualitative approaches, specify in sufficient detail how the data will be analyzed.Quality Assurance: The protocol should describe the quality control and quality assurance system for the conduct of the study, including GCP, follow-up by clinical monitors, DSMB, data management, etc.Expected Outcomes of the Study: The protocol should indicate how the study will contribute to advancement of knowledge and how the results will be utilized, not only in publications but also how they will likely affect health care, health systems, or health policies.Duration of the Project: The protocol should specify the time that each phase of the project is likely to take, along with a timeline for each activity to be undertaken.

Project Management: This section should briefly describe the role and responsibility of each member of the team.Ethics: The protocol should have a description of ethical considerations relating to the study.This section should state the issues that are likely to raise ethical concerns.It should also describe the informed consent process.Research-Human-Clinical Trials In these studies, individuals are randomly allocated to receive or not receive a preventive, therapeutic, or diagnostic intervention and then followed up to determine the effect of the intervention.

Each manuscript should clearly state an objective or hypothesis; the design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients or participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, or data sources, and how these were selected for the study); the essential features of any interventions; the main outcome measures; the main results of the study; a comment section placing the results in context with the published literature and addressing study limitations; and the conclusions.Trial registration information (name, number, and URL) must be included with the submission.See Clinical Trial Registration for further information regarding the Journal’s requirements for registering clinical trials.A structured abstract of no more than 250 words is required.Maximum length: 3,000 words of text (not including abstract, references, figures, tables, and online-only material).

For randomized controlled trials, see Research Reporting Guidelines for information regarding CONSORT.Review Reviews are balanced accounts of all aspects of a particular subject including the pros and cons of any contentious or uncertain aspect.Qualitative reviews should include an unstructured abstract of no more than 250 words.A structured abstract is required for quantitative reviews.Maximum length: 3,500 words of text (not including abstract, references, figures, tables, and online-only material) with no more than a total of 100 references.

For systematic reviews and meta-analyses, see Research Reporting Guidelines for information regarding PRISMA and MOOSE.Case Report Please be aware that Neurosurgery accepts a very small percentage of submitted case reports and publishes a limited number in each issue.Consequently, review time and time to publication are extended.Case reports must show an unusual clinical development, or a new insight into a well-recognized clinical problem.A case report should have an educational message, provide evidence of how the case contributes to our understanding of the condition/treatment, and if relevant, comply with the CARE Guidelines.

(see Research Reporting Guidelines for information regarding CARE).Case reports that do not satisfy these requirements will be rejected without peer review.Important Note: case reports appear in print as a truncated version with the abstract and selected figures only.Full text, references, and figures are reproduced online at .

A structured abstract of no more than 250 words is required.

Maximum length: 1,200 words of text (not including abstract, references, figures, tables, and online-only material).Abstracts for Case Reports contain the following headings: Background and Importance: State the significance of the issue and importance of the case(s).Clinical Presentation: Define the case(s) presented, pertinent attendant issues, and observations.Conclusion: State outcome of Legacy-Institutions and People Special Article These papers may address virtually any important topic in medicine, public health, research, ethics, health policy, or health law and generally are not linked to a specific article.Legacy and Special Articles should include an unstructured abstract of no more than 250 words.

Maximum length: 2,500 words of text (not including abstract, references, figures, tables, and online-only material).Please note: Submissions under these article types may be considered for publication in the journal’s correspondence section as a commentary.Authors will be informed of this at the time the initial review is conducted.Letter to the Editor Letters discussing a recent Neurosurgery article or a topic of neurosurgical interest not necessarily related to a published article can be submitted.They should be submitted online via /neu.

Letters must not duplicate other material published or submitted for publication and should not include unpublished data.Important Note: Letters to the Editor are indexed in the journal Table of Contents; however, the text is only available online at .Maximum length: 1,000 words of text (not including references, figures, tables, and online-only material).Response to Letter to the Editor Corresponding authors are invited by the Editorial Office to submit a Response to Letter to the Editor upon receipt of a Letter to the Editor regarding their article in Neurosurgery.Response letters must not duplicate other material published or submitted for publication and should not include unpublished data.

Important Note: Responses to letters to the editor are indexed in the journal Table of Contents; however, the text is only available online at .Maximum length: 1,000 words of text (not including references, figures, tables, and online-only material).Commentary Commentaries are invited at the discretion of the editor and can be a brief communication on a subject pertinent to the field.Commentaries may also be invited from a selected reviewer or reviewers once a paper has been accepted for publication.The goal of a commentary in the latter case is to enrich the reader’s understanding of the manuscript by highlighting a particular aspect of the given paper or to offer an alternative perspective on the contents reported.

Important Note: Commentaries are published in print or online only at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief.Maximum length: 1,000 words of text (not including references, figures, tables, and online-only material).Editorial Editorials are invited essays written and submitted by a member of the editorial board.Editorials are used as a venue for members of the editorial board to express their views on an issue timely to the neurosurgery community.Maximum length: 3,000 words of text (not including references, figures, tables, and online-only material).Guest Editorial Guest editorials are invited essays written and submitted by a member of the neurosurgery community.Guest editorials are used as a venue for the author to express his or her views on an issue timely to the neurosurgery community.Questions may be directed to [email protected] .

 Maximum length: 3,000 words of text (not including references, figures, tables, and online-only material).Editor-in-Chief Registrar The Registrar is an article type reserved specifically for communications from the Editor-in-Chief to the Journal readership.The Editor-in-Chief may use this as a venue to provide updates on the Journal and its features or to communicate his or her views on a subject timely to the neurosurgery community.Book ReviewReviews of books and new media are invited by the Editor.Questions may be directed to [email protected] .

Maximum length: 1,000 words of text (not including references).Cover Essay A cover essay is an invited submission based on the journal cover art.The goal of this essay is to illuminate the image that appears on the cover of the Journal.These essays will be solicited by the editor and those solicited may include the author of the paper from which a cover image was selected, the artist who created the cover image, or an author whom the editor feels can provide insight into the cover art.Maximum length: 3,000 words of text (not including references, figures, tables, and online-only material).

Science Times Published six times a year and written exclusively by panel members, Science Times articles provide timely reviews of significant new scientific papers that are relevant to the field of neurosurgery.Topics span basic neuroscience, clinical neuroscience, neurotechnology, and health care research.The purpose of Science Times is to help maintain and broaden the common literacy necessary to translate new scientific knowledge into advances in the neurosurgical clinic and operating room.REFERENCES The style of references conforms to the guidelines set forth by the American Medical Association Manual of Style.For additional examples and information regarding references, see the AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors, 10th Edition, 2007, published by Oxford University Press, Inc.

, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 or visit online: .EndNote users can access a direct download of the updated NEUROSURGERY® Publications style at /neu.Authors using other forms of reference management software should use JAMA.All references cited in the text must be both listed and cited by the reference number (footnotes are not accepted).

Each reference should be cited in the text, tables, or figures in consecutive numerical order by means of superscript Arabic numerals.

Use superscript numerals outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons.When more than 2 references are cited at a given place in the manuscript, use hyphens to join the first and last numbers of a closed series; use commas without space to separate other parts of a multiple citation (e., As reported previously,1,3-8, derived data were as follows3,4,12:) References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are cited in the text.References in tables and in figure legends must appear in the reference page(s).

In listed references, use the author’s surname followed by initials without periods., Doe JF) If there are 6 or fewer authors of a reference, all authors should be listed.If there are more than 6 authors, then the list should be truncated to 3 authors followed by “et al.

6 authors Doe JF, Roe JP III, Coe RT Jr, Loe JT Sr, Poe EA, van Voe AE.>6 authors Doe JF, Roe JP III, Coe RT Jr, et al.Full-page ranges should be given in expanded form (e.

If non-English-language titles are translated into English, bracketed indication of the original language should follow the title.Abbreviate and italicize names of journals.Abbreviations for journal titles should be those found on PubMed and adopted by the Index Medicus.

In references to journals that have no volume or issue numbers, use the issue date, as shown in example 1 below.If there is an issue number but no volume number, use the style shown in example 2.Conversely, if there is a volume number but no issue number, follow example 3.Papers "submitted for publication" but not yet accepted and citations such as "personal communication" or "unpublished data" are not acceptable as listed references and instead should be included parenthetically in the text.This material, with its date, should be noted in the text as “unpublished data” as follows: (J.Doe, MD, unpublished data, January 2010).Papers denoted "in press" (accepted for publication) should appear in the references.

Contributors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of the references.FIGURES To ensure the highest-quality reproduction of figures, please follow these guidelines carefully.Figures refer to both photographic and computer-generated graphs and charts.NEUROSURGERY® Publications is not responsible for the quality of images in print; it is the responsibility of the authors to submit publication-quality, high-resolution images.If you have questions, please consult a graphics specialist.

Creating and Saving Art should be created/scanned, saved, and submitted as either a TIFF or an EPS file.

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Art should be created or scaled to the size intended for print.Image orientation should also be the same as intended for print.Artwork originating and generated from office suite programs such as MS Word, MS PowerPoint, and MS Excel should be saved as a PDF and converted to a high-resolution TIFF or EPS file using Photoshop Papers must be written in English. The text and all supporting materials must use American spelling and usage as given in The American Heritage Dictionary , Webster's Third New International Dictionary , or the Oxford American English Dictionary . Authors should follow the style and form recommended in Scientific Style  .

Artwork originating and generated from office suite programs such as MS Word, MS PowerPoint, and MS Excel should be saved as a PDF and converted to a high-resolution TIFF or EPS file using Photoshop.

Figures should look sharp and crisp when viewed at 100% magnification in Photoshop.

Any text or labels used on an image should be formatted using Helvetica or Arial font Help me do my college medical sciences term paper ASA Premium Junior Academic.Any text or labels used on an image should be formatted using Helvetica or Arial font., no feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced Help me do my college medical sciences term paper ASA Premium Junior Academic., no feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced.Figures are numbered with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.

) when there is more than one figure included with the manuscript equine-research-inc.com/thesis-proposal/..) when there is more than one figure included with the manuscript.Do not use roman numerals to number figures.If a figure has multiple parts (“composite figure”) each part (“panel”) is designated with uppercase alphabetical letters in the figure legend and in-text reference.Composite figures must be submitted as separate panels without embedded labels, e., Figure , Figure , to be combined during production if accepted for publication.Each file should be saved as the appropriate figure number (e.Do not include the author name in figure file name.Formatting Specifications All figures must be designated GRAYSCALE (black and white) or CMYK (color).If figures are in RGB, they should be converted to CMYK prior to submission if they are to be printed in color.Authors should note that the RGB color space is significantly larger than the process CMYK color space, and therefore, depending on the content of the image, color shifts may occur during the conversion.Figures must have a resolution of at least 300 dpi at 3 inches (18 Picas) in width.

Digital art files should be cropped to remove non-printing borders (such as unnecessary white or black space around an image) and should not include embedded “legend” text.Submitting Do not embed figures in the manuscript file.Figures should be labeled using the Description field provided in the Attach Files section of Editorial Manager (e.This provides a label for each figure in the PDF generated by Editorial Manager.Cite figures consecutively in the manuscript, and number them in the order in which they are discussed.If a figure contains multiple panels (A, B, C, etc.) all panels must be cited in alphabetical order or the figure must be cited as a whole before proceeding to the next numerical figure.Ensure the file format is either TIFF or EPS and the resolution is at least 300 dpi.

Carefully review the PDF conversion of your submission files to ensure that figures uploaded without error and appear as intended.If you experience any difficulties uploading figure images, or have questions regarding submission specifications please contact the Editorial Office via phone (+001)404.Color Figures Authors are responsible for the costs of any color reproductions in the printed journal and for obtaining permission to reproduce previously published illustrations.

Color is preferred with all histopathology, and in particular immunohistochemistry illustrations.Figure Reproduction Costs $150 for each additional figure thereafter Authors may request that figures be produced in color in the electronic versions of the journal free of charge and converted to grayscale in print.Please do not submit multiple versions of figures; the publisher will convert any color figures to grayscale in production.The publisher will note in the printed legends that color versions are available online.When preparing illustrations for color production online and for grayscale production in print, ensure that colors chosen will reproduce well when printed in grayscale and that descriptions of figures in text and legends will be sufficiently clear for both print and electronic versions.

Figure Legends Legends for all figures should be brief, specific, and appear on a separate page at the end of the manuscript document, following the list of references.Use scale markers in the image for electron micrographs, and indicate the type of stain used.All symbols or abbreviations appearing in an illustration must be defined in the legend.Legends for composite figures should be formatted as a single legend containing necessary information about each part/panel (not separated).

Credit for any previously published illustration must be given in the corresponding legend.This includes reference to the original source and indication that permission has been obtained to reuse the image (if required).For further information on figure legend formatting, please see the AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors, 10th Edition or visit online: .TABLES Creating and Saving Create tables using the table formatting and editing feature of Microsoft Word.

Do not use Microsoft Excel or comparable spreadsheet programs.

Images may not be embedded within tables.The use of color in table cells or other color elements is not permitted.Save each table in a separate Microsoft Word document.Tables that include one or more parts (e.

, Table 1A, Table 1B) should be submitted in one single file.Formatting Specifications Accepted file formats for tables: DOC and DOCX Each table file should include the table title, appropriate column heads, and any legends (including abbreviations).Table titles and legends should not be included within the manuscript file.Do not include author names in headers or footers of table files.

Abbreviations are not permitted in table titles.Any abbreviation(s) used in the body of the table, including dashes must be defined in a footnote to the table, listed in reading order.They should be self-explanatory and should supplement, rather than duplicate, the material in the text.Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.) when there is more than one table included with the manuscript.

Do not use roman numerals to number tables.Cite tables consecutively in the manuscript, and number them in the order in which they are discussed.Many tables include information from other articles and series of patients.In these tables, include the name of the first author of the series in the far left column of the table, and include the reference and year alongside the author's name.Each series mentioned in a table must list a corresponding reference in the Reference section of the manuscript.

Submitting Do not submit tables embedded within the manuscript file.Carefully review the PDF conversion of your submission files to ensure that any tables submitted are legible, and are not cut-off on either side of the page.For further information on Table formatting, please see the AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors, 10th Edition or visit online: .SUPPLEMENTAL DIGITAL CONTENT Authors may submit supplemental digital content to enhance their article’s text and to be considered for online only posting.Supplemental digital content may include the following types of content: text documents, graphs, tables, figures, graphics, illustrations, and videos.

Note: Supplemental Digital Content will not be copyedited or formatted in any way by the Editorial Office of the Publisher.These materials will be published as is.Formatting Requirements supplemental material or in the file names.Supplemental digital content items are numbered with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.Cite all supplemental digital content consecutively in the text, and number in the order in which they are cited.Citations should include the type of material submitted, should be clearly labeled as "Supplemental Digital Content,” and should provide a brief description of the content.Items may only be grouped into one singular supplemental digital content file if they are referenced as a whole in the text.In-text Citation Examples (see Figures, Supplemental Digital Content, which demonstrate the technique used) (see Table, Supplemental Digital Content 1, which illustrates the rise in cost of knee replacement surgery) (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 2, which demonstrates the degrees of flexibility in the elbow) (see Supplemental Methods, Supplemental Digital Content 3, for further details) All supplemental digital content files should include a title, legend, abbreviations list, etc.For those files like figures and videos that may be uploaded as separate files, please upload a separate legend file.If figures are submitted in either a Microsoft Word or PowerPoint file, legends should be included within the individual file.For the video legends please provide 3-5 descriptive annotations designating the significant moments in the video.Example: 0:10 - Placement of Patient; 1:00 – Incision; 3:00 – Procedure.If a supplemental content file includes references, they should be formatted according to the AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors, 10th Edition, as with references in the main text.

File Type and Size Requirements Supplemental documents, graphs, and tables may be presented in any format.Supplemental figures should be submitted with the following file extensions: .gif Supplemental video files should be submitted following these requirements: Accepted video file types include: .mp4 Video files should be formatted with a 320 x 240 pixel minimum screen size.

Video files should be 1GB or smaller and should not exceed 10 minutes in runtime.Videos must include embedded audio narration in English or detailed subtitles in English.Videos should not include manufacturer logos or commercial trademarks.Do not include author/institution information or “title page” slides in videos.Any text used in videos should be formatted using Arial font.

Video files too large to upload in Editorial Manager may be alternately submitted as a URL for downloading (via a file transfer or cloud storage website, such as Dropbox) at the “Attach Files” step in Editorial Manager.In lieu of attaching the file, authors may select the “URL” option as the delivery method.3-5 descriptive annotations designating the significant moments in the video must be provided during the submission process in Editorial Manager and included in the legend for the video.Example provided below: 0:10 - Placement of Patient; 1:00 – Incision; 3:00 – Procedure.ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPTS Page Proofs / Electronic Proofs Authors are sent page proofs by email.

These should be checked immediately and corrections, as well as answers to any queries, returned to the publishers as an annotated PDF via the online proofing system within 2 working days (further details are supplied with the proof).It is the author's responsibility to check proofs thoroughly.Advance Access Advance Access articles are published online four weeks after they have been accepted for publication, in advance of their appearance in a printed journal.Appearance in Advance Access (in either of the models below) constitutes official publication, and the Advance Access version can be cited by a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier).When an article appears in an issue, it is removed from the Advance Access page.

Articles posted for Advance Access have been copyedited and typeset and any corrections from page proof review included.This is before they are paginated for inclusion in a specific issue of the journal.Reprints Reprints should be ordered from the publisher when page proofs are returned.An order form will accompany all page proofs sent from the publisher.Offprints Authors will receive electronic access to their paper free of charge.

Printed offprints may be purchased in multiples of 50.Rates are indicated on the offprint order form, which must be returned with the proofs.Reviewer Comments When appropriate, reviewer comments will be printed at the end of a published paper.If a paper is rejected, reviewer comments (if applicable) will be returned to the author electronically.DISCLAIMER The statements and opinions expressed in NEUROSURGERY® Publications are those of the individual contributors, editors, or advertisers, as indicated, and do not necessarily represent the views of the other editors, the publisher, or the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

Unless otherwise specified, the authors and publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such material.General Papers must be written in English.The text and all supporting materials must use American spelling and usage as given in The American Heritage Dictionary , Webster's Third New International Dictionary , or the Oxford American English Dictionary .Authors should follow the style and form recommended in Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers , 2006, 7th ed.Style Manual Committee, Council of Science Editors, Reston, VA.

Authors should prepare their manuscripts with Microsoft Word and upload them using the fewest files possible to facilitate the review and editing process.Authors whose primary language is not English are strongly encouraged to use an English-language service to facilitate the preparation of their manuscript.A partial list of services can be found in the Poultry Science Manuscript checklist.Preparing the Manuscript File Manuscripts should be typed double-spaced, with lines and pages numbered consecutively, using Times New Roman font at 12 points., Greek, math, symbols) should be inserted using the symbols palette available in this font.

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Complex math should be entered using MathType from Design Science ( ).Tables and figures should be placed in separate sections at the end of the manuscript (not placed within the text).Failure to follow these instructions may result in an immediate rejection of the manuscript Review articles on advances in clinical medicine or medical science should be up to 2,000 words in length, contain up to 25 references, and include one table, figure, or picture. Unsolicited   All other communications to the publishers: Oxford University Press, Oxford Journals, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, UK..

Failure to follow these instructions may result in an immediate rejection of the manuscript.

Major headings are centered (except ABSTRACT), all capitals, boldface, and consist of ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION (or RESULTS AND DISCUSSION), ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (optional), APPENDIX (optional), and REFERENCES.First subheadings are placed on a separate line, begin at the left margin, the first letter of all important words is capitalized, and the headings are boldface and italic.

Text that follows a first subheading should be in a new paragraph Neurosurgery authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available   Max Planck Society (Germany); Medical Research Council (UK); National Health Service (UK); National Institutes of Health (US); National Science Foundation (US)  .

Text that follows a first subheading should be in a new paragraph.

Second subheadings begin the first line of a paragraph.They are indented, boldface, italic, and followed by a period.The first letter of each important word should be capitalized.The text follows immediately after the final period of the subheading.

Title Page The title page shall begin with a running head (short title) of not more than 45 characters.The running head is centered, is in all capital letters, and shall appear on the top of the title page.The title of the paper must be in boldface; the first letter of the article title and proper names are capitalized, and the remainder of the title is lowercase.Under the title, names of authors should be typed (first name or initial, middle initial, last name).Affiliations will be footnoted using the following symbols: *, †, ‡, §, #, ‖, and be placed below the author names.Do not give authors' titles, positions, or degrees.Numbered footnotes may be used to provide supplementary information, such as present address, acknowledgment of grants, and experiment station or journal series number.The corresponding author should be indicated with a numbered footnote (e.

Note that there is no period after the corresponding author's e-mail address.The title page shall include the name and full address of the corresponding author.Telephone and FAX numbers and e-mail address must also be provided.

The title page must indicate the appropriate scientific section for the paper (i., Education and Production; Environment, Well-Being, and Behavior; Genetics; Immunology, Health, and Disease; Metabolism and Nutrition; Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology; Physiology, Endocrinology, and Reproduction; or Processing, Products, and Food Safety).Authors may create a full title page as a one-page document, in a file separate from the rest of the paper.This file can be uploaded and marked "not for review.

" Authors who choose to upload manuscripts with a full title page at the beginning will have their papers forwarded to reviewers as is.Abbreviations Author-derived abbreviations should be defined at first use in the abstract and again in the body of the manuscript.The abbreviation will be shown in bold type at first use in the body of the manuscript.Refer to the Miscellaneous Usage Notes for more information on abbreviations.Abstract The Abstract disseminates scientific information through abstracting journals and through convenience for the readers.

The Abstract, consisting of not more than 325 words, appears at the beginning of the manuscript with the word ABSTRACT without a following period.It must summarize the major objectives, methods, results, conclusions, and practical applications of the research.The Abstract must consist of complete sentences and use of abbreviations should be limited.References to other work and footnotes are not permitted.The Abstract and Key Words must be on a separate sheet of paper.

Key Words The Abstract shall be followed by a maximum of five key words or phrases to be used for subject indexing.These should include important words from the title and the running head and should be singular, not plural, terms (e.Authors should consult a current "Subject Index" in Poultry Science for additional key words.

Key words should be formatted as follows: Key words: .Introduction The Introduction, while brief, should provide the reader with information necessary for understanding research presented in the paper.Previous work on the topic should be summarized, and the objectives of the current research must be clearly stated.

Materials and Methods All sources of products, equipment, and chemicals used in the experiments must be specified parenthetically at first mention in text, tables, and figures i.Model and catalog numbers should be included.

Information shall include the full corporate name (including division, branch, or other subordinate part of the corporation, if applicable), city, and state (country if outside the United States), or Web address.Street addresses need not be given unless the reader would not be able to determine the full address for mailing purposes easily by consulting standard references.Age, sex, breed, and strain or genetic stock of animals used in the experiments shall be specified.Animal care guidelines should be referenced if appropriate.Papers must contain analyzed values for those dietary ingredients that are crucial to the experiment.

Papers dealing with the effects of feed additives or graded levels of a specific nutrient must give analyzed values for the relevant additive or nutrient in the diet(s).If products were used that contain different potentially active compounds, then analyzed values for these compounds must be given for the diet(s).Exceptions can only be made if appropriate methods are not available.In other papers, authors should state whether experimental diets meet or exceed the National Research Council (1994) requirements as appropriate.If not, crude protein and metabolizable energy levels should be stated.

For layer diets, calcium and phosphorus contents should also be specified.When describing the composition of diets and vitamin premixes, the concentration of vitamins A and E should be expressed as IU/kg on the basis of the following equivalents: Vitamin A 1 IU = 0.67 mg of D- -tocopherol In the instance of vitamin D3, cholecalciferol is the acceptable term on the basis that 1 IU of vitamin D3 = 0.The sources of vitamins A and E must be specified in parentheses immediately following the stated concentrations.Biology should be emphasized, but the use of incorrect or inadequate statistical methods to analyze and interpret biological data is not acceptable.Consultation with a statistician is recommended.Statistical methods commonly used in the animal sciences need not be described in detail, but adequate references should be provided.The statistical model, classes, blocks, and experimental unit must be designated.Any restrictions used in estimating parameters should be defined.

Reference to a statistical package without reporting the sources of variation (classes) and other salient features of the analysis, such as covariance or orthogonal contrasts, is not sufficient.A statement of the results of statistical analysis should justify the interpretations and conclusions.When possible, results of similar experiments should be pooled statistically.Do not report a number of similar experiments separately.The experimental unit is the smallest unit to which an individual treatment is imposed.

For group-fed animals, the group of animals in the pen is the experimental unit; therefore, groups must be replicated.Repeated chemical analyses of the same sample usually do not constitute independent experimental units.Measurements on the same experimental unit over time also are not independent and must not be considered as independent experimental units.For analysis of time effects, use time-sequence analysis.Usual assumptions are that errors in the statistical models are normally and independently distributed with constant variance.

Most standard methods are robust to deviations from these assumptions, but occasionally data transformations or other techniques are helpful.For example, it is recommended that percentage data between 0 and 20 and between 80 and 100 be subjected to arc sin transformation prior to analysis.Most statistical procedures are based on the assumption that experimental units have been assigned to treatments at random.If animals are stratified by ancestry or weight or if some other initial measurement should be accounted for, the model should include a blocking factor, or the initial measurement should be included as a covariate.A parameter mean ( ), variance ( 2) , which defines or describes a population, is estimated by a statistic (x, s2).

The term parameter is not appropriate to describe a variable, observation, trait, characteristic, or measurement taken in an experiment.Standard designs are adequately described by name and size (e., "a randomized complete block design with 6 treatments in 5 blocks").For a factorial set of treatments, an adequate description might be as follows: "Total sulfur amino acids at 0.

30% of the diet were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement in 5 randomized complete blocks consisting of initial BW.

" Note that a factorial arrangement is not a design ; the term "design" refers to the method of grouping experimental units into homogeneous groups or blocks (i., the way in which the randomization is restricted).Standard deviation refers to the variability in a sample or a population.The standard error (calculated from error variance) is the estimated sampling error of a statistic such as the sample mean.

When a standard deviation or standard error is given, the number of degrees of freedom on which it rests should be specified.When any statistical value (as mean or difference of 2 means) is mentioned, its standard error or confidence limit should be given.The fact that differences are not "statistically significant" is no reason for omitting standard errors.They are of value when results from several experiments are combined in the future.They also are useful to the reader as measures of efficiency of experimental techniques.

A value attached by "±" to a number implies that the second value is its standard error (not its standard deviation).Adequate reporting may require only 1) the number of observations, 2) arithmetic treatment means, and 3) an estimate of experimental error.The pooled standard error of the mean is the preferred estimate of experimental error.Standard errors need not be presented separately for each mean unless the means are based on different numbers of observations or the heterogeneity of the error variance is to be emphasized.Presenting individual standard errors clutters the presentation and can mislead readers.

For more complex experiments, tables of subclass means and tables of analyses of variance or covariance may be included.When the analysis of variance contains several error terms, such as in split-plot and repeated measures designs, the text should indicate clearly which mean square was used for the denominator of each F statistic.Unbalanced factorial data can present special problems.Accordingly, it is well to state how the computing was done and how the parameters were estimated.Approximations should be accompanied by cautions concerning possible biases.

Contrasts (preferably orthogonal) are used to answer specific questions for which the experiment was designed; they should form the basis for comparing treatment means.Nonorthogonal contrasts may be evaluated by Bonferroni t statistics.The exact contrasts tested should be described for the reader.Multiple-range tests are not appropriate when treatments are orthogonally arranged.Fixed-range, pairwise, multiple-comparison tests should be used only to compare means of treatments that are unstructured or not related.

Least squares means are the correct means to use for all data, but arithmetic means are identical to least squares means unless the design is unbalanced or contains missing values or an adjustment is being made for a covariate.In factorial treatment arrangements, means for main effects should be presented when important interactions are not present.However, means for individual treatment combinations also should be provided in table or text so that future researchers may combine data from several experiments to detect important interactions.An interaction may not be detected in a given experiment because of a limitation in the number of observations.The terms significant and highly significant traditionally have been reserved for P < 0.

01, respectively; however, reporting the P-value is preferred to the use of these terms.05) between control and treated samples" rather than ".05) difference between control and treated samples." When available, the observed significance level (e.027) should be presented rather than merely P < 0.

01, thereby allowing the reader to decide what to reject.Other probability ( ) levels may be discussed if properly qualified so that the reader is not misled.

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Do not report P-values to more than 3 places after the decimal.

Regardless of the probability level used, failure to reject a hypothesis should be based on the relative consequences of type I and II errors.

A "nonsignificant" relationship should not be interpreted to suggest the absence of a relationship Order an term paper medical sciences US Letter Size British Premium Business.A "nonsignificant" relationship should not be interpreted to suggest the absence of a relationship.

An inadequate number of experimental units or insufficient control of variation limits the power to detect relationships.05 to declare nonsignificance, such as indicating that a difference is not significant at P > 0 Medical Research Paper Writing Service Order Thesis Proposal nbsp.05 to declare nonsignificance, such as indicating that a difference is not significant at P > 0.05 and subsequently declaring another difference significant (or a tendency) at P < 0 Medical Research Paper Writing Service Order Thesis Proposal nbsp.

05 and subsequently declaring another difference significant (or a tendency) at P < 0.

In addition, readers may incorrectly interpret the use of P > 0.05 as the probability of a error, not an error.A practical rule is to round values so that the change caused by rounding is less than one-tenth of the standard error.

Such rounding increases the variance of the reported value by less than 1%, so that less than 1% of the relevant information contained in the data is sacrificed.Significant digits in data reported should be restricted to 3 beyond the decimal point, unless warranted by the use of specific methods.Results and Discussion Results and Discussion sections may be combined, or they may appear in separate sections.If separate, the Results section shall contain only the results and summary of the author's experiments; there should be no literature comparisons.Those comparisons should appear in the Discussion section.

Manuscripts reporting sequence data must have GenBank accession numbers prior to submitting.One of the hallmarks for experimental evidence is repeatability.Care should be taken to ensure that experiments are adequately replicated.The results of experiments must be replicated, either by replicating treatments within experiments or by repeating experiments.Acknowledgments An Acknowledgments section, if desired, shall follow the Discussion section.

Acknowledgments of individuals should include affiliations but not titles, such as Dr.Affiliations shall include institution, city, and state.Appendix A technical Appendix, if desired, shall follow the Discussion section or Acknowledgments, if present.

The Appendix may contain supplementary material, explanations, and elaborations that are not essential to other major sections but are helpful to the reader.Novel computer programs or mathematical computations would be appropriate.The Appendix will not be a repository for raw data.In the body of the manuscript, refer to authors as follows: Smith and Jones (1992) or Smith and Jones (1990, 1992).

If the sentence structure requires that the authors' names be included in parentheses, the proper format is (Smith and Jones, 1982; Jones, 1988a,b; Jones et al.Where there are more than two authors of one article, the first author's name is followed by the abbreviation et al.More than one article listed in the same sentence of text must be in chronological order first, and alphabetical order for two publications in the same year.Work that has not been accepted for publication shall be listed in the text as: "J.

Jones (institution, city, and state, personal communication)." The author's own unpublished work should be listed in the text as "(J." Personal communications and unpublished data must not be included in the References section.

To be listed in the References section, papers must be published or accepted for publication.Manuscripts submitted for publication can be cited as "personal communication" or "unpublished data" in the text.Citation of abstracts, conference proceedings, and other works that have not been peer reviewed is strongly discouraged unless essential to the paper.Abstract and proceedings references are not apropriate citations in the Materials and Methods section of a paper.

In the References section, references shall first be listed alphabetically by author(s)' last name(s), and then chronologically.The year of publication follows the authors' names.As with text citations, two or more publications by the same author or set of authors in the same year shall be differentiated by adding lowercase letters after the date.The dates for papers with the same first author that would be abbreviated in the text as et al.

, even though the second and subsequent authors differ, shall also be differentiated by letters.

All authors' names must appear in the Reference section.Journals shall be abbreviated according to the conventional ISO abbreviations given in journals database of the National Library of Medicine ( /entrez/ ?db=journals).Inclusive page numbers must be provided.Consult recent issues of Poultry Science for examples not included below.Hatchability and physiology of turkey embryos incubated at sea level with increased eggshell permeability.Hematological indices of turkey embryos incubated at high altitude as affected by oxygen and shell permeability.

Susceptibility of adult chickens, with and without prior vaccination, to challenge with Marek's disease virus.

The effects of oxygen on growth and development of the chick embryo.Pages 205-219 in Respiration and Metabolism of Embryonic Vertebrates.Federal Register: Department of Agriculture, Plant and Animal Health Inspection Service.Blood and tissue collection at slaughtering and rendering establishments, final rule.

Long-chain hydrocarbons as a marker for digestibility studies in poultry.

Method to enhance reproductive performance in poultry.Nutritional strategies to meet the challenge of feeding poultry without antibiotic growth promotants.

Application of computer vision and electronic nose technologies for quality assessment of color and odor of shrimp and salmon.

The influence of feeding program on broiler breeder male mortality.) Tables Tables must be created using the MS Word table feature and inserted in the manuscript after the references section.

When possible, tables should be organized to fit across the page without running broadside.Be aware of the dimensions of the printed page when planning tables (use of more than 15 columns will create layout problems).Place the table number and title on the same line above the table.The table title does not require a period.Do not use vertical lines and use few horizontal lines.

Use of bold and italic typefaces in the table body should be done sparingly; such use must be defined in a footnote.To facilitate placement of all tables into the manuscript file (just after the references) authors should use "section breaks" rather than "page breaks" at the end of the manuscript (before the tables) and between tables.Units of measure for each variable must be indicated.Papers with several tables must use consistent format.

All columns must have appropriate headings.Abbreviations not found on the inside front cover of the journal must be defined in each table and must match those used in the text.Footnotes to tables should be marked by superscript numbers.Superscript letters shall be used for the separation of means in the body of the table and explanatory footnotes must be provided i.

, "Means within a row lacking a common superscript differ (P < 0." ; other significant P-values may be specified.Comparison of means within rows and columns should be indicated by different series of superscripts (e.

in columns) The first alphabetical letter in the series (e., a or A) shall be used to indicate the largest mean.

Probability values may be indicated as follows: *P ≤ 0.

Consult a recent issue of Poultry Science for examples of tables.

Figures To facilitate review, figures should be placed at the end of the manuscript (separated by section breaks).Each figure should be placed on a separate page, and identified by the manuscript number and the figure number.A figure with multiple panels or parts should appear on one page (e., if Figure 1 has parts a, b, and c, place all of these on the same page).

Figure captions should be typed (double spaced) on a separate page.Prepare figures at final size for publication.Figures should be prepared to fit one column (8.9 cm wide), 2 columns (14 cm wide), or full-page width (19 cm wide).

Ensure that all type within the figure and axis labels are readable at final publication size.A minimum type size of 8 points (after reduction) should be used.Symbols may be inserted using the Symbol palette in Times New Roman.For line graphs, use a minimum stroke weight of 1 point for all lines.If multiple lines are to be distinguished, use solid, long-dash, short-dash, and dotted lines.Avoid the use of color, gray, or shaded lines, as these will not reproduce well.

Lines with different symbols for the data points may also be used to distinguish curves.Each axis should have a description and a unit.Units may be separated from the descriptor by a comma or parentheses, and should be consistent within a manuscript.

For bar charts, use different fill patterns if needed (e.Avoid the use of multiple shades of gray, as they will not be easily distinguishable in print.Identify curves and data points using the following symbols only: □, ■, ○, ●, ▲, ▼, n, ,, e, r, +, or ×.Symbols should be defined in a key on the figure if possible.Figures can be submitted in Word, PDF, EPS, TIFF, and JPEG.Avoid PowerPoint files and other formats.

For the best printed quality, line art should be prepared at 600 ppi.Grayscale and color images and photomicrographs should be at least 300 ppi.If figures are to be reproduced in grayscale (black and white), submit in grayscale.Often color will mask contrast problems that are apparent only when the figure is reproduced in grayscale.

If figures are to appear in color in the print journal, files must be submitted in CMYK color (not RGB).Photomicrographs must have their unmagnified size designated, either in the caption or with a scale bar on the figure.Reduction for publication can make a magnification power designation (e.

The caption should provide sufficient information that the figure can be understood with excessive reference to the text.All author-derived abbreviations used in the figure should be defined in the caption.

Avoid the use of three-dimensional bar charts, unless essential to the presentation of the data.Use the simplest shading scheme possible to present the data clearly.Ensure that data, symbols, axis labels, lines, and key are clear and easily readable at final publication size.Submitted color images should be at least 300 ppi.The cost to publish each color figure is $600; a surcharge for color reprints ordered will be assessed.Authors must agree in writing to bear the costs of color production after acceptance and prior to publication of the paper.