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1 Introduction A technical report is a formal report designed to convey technical information in a clear and easily accessible format.It is divided into sections which allow different readers to access different levels of information.
This guide explains the commonly accepted format for a technical report; explains the purposes of the individual sections; and gives hints on how to go about drafting and refining a report in order to produce an accurate, professional document X mg) Write 0.X mg MS Can mean morphine sulfate or magnesium sulfate Write “morphine sulfate” MSO4 and MgSO4 Confused for one another Write required to demonstrate the level of precision of the value being reported, such as for laboratory results, imaging studies that report size of lesions, or catheter/tube sizes..This guide explains the commonly accepted format for a technical report; explains the purposes of the individual sections; and gives hints on how to go about drafting and refining a report in order to produce an accurate, professional document.
2 Structure Section Title page Must include the title of the report.Reports for assessment, where the word length has been specified, will often also require the summary word count and the main text word count Summary Contents Introduction States the objectives of the report and comments on the way the topic of the report is to be treated.Must not be a copy of the introduction in a lab handout Math Calculations for Pharmacy Technicians E Book A Worktext.
Must not be a copy of the introduction in a lab handout.
The sections which make up the body of the report Divided into numbered and headed sections best website to buy a custom medicine presentation Premium single spaced Business.The sections which make up the body of the report Divided into numbered and headed sections.These sections separate the different main ideas in a logical order Conclusions References Details of published sources of material referred to or quoted in the text (including any lecture notes and URL addresses of any websites used equine-research-inc.com/presentation/best-website-to-buy-a-custom-medicine-presentation-premium-single-spaced-business.These sections separate the different main ideas in a logical order Conclusions References Details of published sources of material referred to or quoted in the text (including any lecture notes and URL addresses of any websites used.Bibliography Other published sources of material, including websites, not referred to in the text but useful for background or further reading.Acknowledgements Appendices (if appropriate) Any further material which is essential for full understanding of your report (e.
large scale diagrams, computer code, raw data, specifications) but not required by a casual reader 3 Presentation Script The report must be printed single sided on white A4 paper.Hand written or dot-matrix printed reports are not acceptable.Margins Page numbers Do not number the title, summary or contents pages.Number all other pages consecutively starting at 1 Binding A single staple in the top left corner or 3 staples spaced down the left hand margin.year 3 project report) binders may be used.4 Planning the report There are some excellent textbooks contain advice about the writing process and how to begin (see Section 16).Here is a checklist of the main stages; Collect your information.Sources include laboratory handouts and lecture notes, the University Library, the reference books and journals in the Department office.
Keep an accurate record of all the published references which you intend to use in your report, by noting down the following information; Journal article: edition, if appropriate year of publication N.the listing of recommended textbooks in section 2 contains all this information in the correct format.Write down topics and ideas from your researched material in random order.
Keep note of topics that do not fit into groups in case they come in useful later.Put the groups into a logical sequence which covers the topic of your report.Using your logical sequence of grouped ideas, write out a rough outline of the report with headings and subheadings.
the listing of recommended textbooks in Section 16 contains all this information in the correct format.5 Writing the first draft Who is going to read the report? For coursework assignments, the readers might be fellow students and/or faculty markers.In professional contexts, the readers might be managers, clients, project team members.
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The answer will affect the content and technical level, and is a major consideration in the level of detail required in the introduction.Begin writing with the main text, not the introduction.Follow your outline in terms of headings and subheadings 4 Planning the report. 5 Writing the first draft. 6 Revising the first draft. 7 Diagrams, graphs, tables and mathematics. 8 The report layout. 9 Headings. 10 References Reports for assessment, where the word length has been specified, will often also require the summary word count and the main text word count. Summary, A .Follow your outline in terms of headings and subheadings.
Let the ideas flow; do not worry at this stage about style, spelling or word processing.If you get stuck, go back to your outline plan and make more detailed preparatory notes to get the writing flowing again.
Make rough sketches of diagrams or graphs.Keep a numbered list of references as they are included in your writing and put any quoted material inside quotation marks (see Section 11).Write the Conclusion next, followed by the Introduction.6 Revising the first draft This is the stage at which your report will start to take shape as a professional, technical document.
In revising what you have drafted you must bear in mind the following, important principle; the essence of a successful technical report lies in how accurately and concisely it conveys the intended information to the intended readership.During year 1, term 1 you will be learning how to write formal English for technical communication.This includes examples of the most common pitfalls in the use of English and how to avoid them.Use what you learn and the recommended books to guide you.Most importantly, when you read through what you have written, you must ask yourself these questions; Does that sentence/paragraph/section say what I want and mean it to say? If not, write it in a different way.
Are there any words/sentences/paragraphs which could be removed without affecting the information which I am trying to convey? If so, remove them.7 Diagrams, graphs, tables and mathematics It is often the case that technical information is most concisely and clearly conveyed by means other than words.Imagine how you would describe an electrical circuit layout using words rather than a circuit diagram.Here are some simple guidelines; Diagrams Keep them simple.Put small diagrams after the text reference and as close as possible to it.Think about where to place large diagrams.Graphs Tables Is a table the best way to present your information? Consider graphs, bar charts or pie charts.Dependent tables (small) can be placed within the text, even as part of a sentence.
Independent tables (larger) are separated from the text with table numbers and captions.
Position them as close as possible to the text reference.Complicated tables should go in an appendix.Mathematics Only use mathematics where it is the most efficient way to convey the information.Longer mathematical arguments, if they are really necessary, should go into an appendix.
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You will be provided with lecture handouts on the correct layout for mathematics.
8 The report layout The appearance of a report is no less important than its content.An attractive, clearly organised report stands a better chance of being read Order an math lab report no plagiarism double spaced 55 pages / 15125 words APA A4 (British/European).An attractive, clearly organised report stands a better chance of being read.
Use a standard, 12pt, font, such as Times New Roman, for the main text.Use different font sizes, bold, italic and underline where appropriate but not to excess.Too many changes of type style can look very fussy.
9 Headings Use heading and sub-headings to break up the text and to guide the reader.They should be based on the logical sequence which you identified at the planning stage but with enough sub-headings to break up the material into manageable chunks.The use of numbering and type size and style can clarify the structure as follows; 3 Methods of harnessing wave energy 3.1 Shore-based systems 10 References to diagrams, graphs, tables and equations In the main text you must always refer to any diagram, graph or table which you use.Label diagrams and graphs as follows; Figure 1.
In this example, the second diagram in section 1 would be referred to by " figure 1." Label tables in a similar fashion; Table 3.1 Performance specifications of a range of commercially available GaAsFET devices In this example, the first table in section 3 might be referred to by " reference to the performance specifications provided in Table 3.
6) In this example, the sixth equation in section 3 might be referred to by " figure in decibels as given by eqn (3." 11 Originality and plagiarism Whenever you make use of other people's facts or ideas, you must indicate this in the text with a number which refers to an item in the list of references.
Any phrases, sentences or paragraphs which are copied unaltered must be enclosed in quotation marks and referenced by a number.Material which is not reproduced unaltered should not be in quotation marks but must still be referenced.It is not sufficient to list the sources of information at the end of the report; you must indicate the sources of information individually within the report using the reference numbering system.Information that is not referenced is assumed to be either common knowledge or your own work or ideas; if it is not, then it is assumed to be plagiarised i.you have knowingly copied someone else's words, facts or ideas without reference, passing them off as your own.If the person copied from is a fellow student, then this offence is known as collusion and is equally serious.Examination boards can, and do, impose penalties for these offences ranging from loss of marks to disqualification from the award of a degree This warning applies equally to information obtained from the Internet.It is very easy for markers to identify words and images that have been copied directly from web sites.
If you do this without acknowledging the source of your information and putting the words in quotation marks then your report will be sent to the Investigating Officer and you may be called before a disciplinary panel.12 Finalising the report and proofreading Your report should now be nearly complete with an introduction, main text in sections, conclusions, properly formatted references and bibliography and any appendices.Now you must add the page numbers, contents and title pages and write the summary.
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13 The Summary The summary, with the title, should indicate the scope of the report and give the main results and conclusions.It must be intelligible without the rest of the report.
Many people may read, and refer to, a report summary but only a few may read the full report, as often happens in a professional organisation The sections appear in a journal style paper in the following prescribed order: Subheadings: When your paper reports on more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize the presentation. Subheadings should be capitalized (first letter in each word), left justified, and either bold italics OR underlined..Many people may read, and refer to, a report summary but only a few may read the full report, as often happens in a professional organisation.
Purpose - a short version of the report and a guide to the report.Length - short, typically not more than 100-300 words Content - provide information, not just a description of the report Statistics Using R with Biological Examples CRAN R project org.Length - short, typically not more than 100-300 words Content - provide information, not just a description of the report.14 Proofreading This refers to the checking of every aspect of a piece of written work from the content to the layout and is an absolutely necessary part of the writing process.You should acquire the habit of never sending or submitting any piece of written work, from email to course work, without at least one and preferably several processes of proofreading.
In addition, it is not possible for you, as the author of a long piece of writing, to proofread accurately yourself; you are too familiar with what you have written and will not spot all the mistakes.When you have finished your report, and before you staple it, you must check it very carefully yourself.You should then give it to someone else, e.one of your fellow students, to read carefully and check for any errors in content, style, structure and layout.
You should record the name of this person in your acknowledgements.15 Word processing / desktop publishing Advantages Disadvantages Word processing and desktop publishing packages offer great scope for endless revision of a document.This includes words, word order, style and layout.Word processing and desktop publishing packages never make up for poor or inaccurate content They allow for the incremental production of a long document in portions which are stored and combined later They can waste a lot of time by slowing down writing and distracting the writer with the mechanics of text and graphics manipulation.They can be used to make a document look stylish and professional.
Excessive use of 'cut and paste' leads to tedious repetition and sloppy writing.They make the process of proofreading and revision extremely straightforward If the first draft is word processed, it can look so stylish that the writer is fooled into thinking that it does not need proofreading and revision! Two useful tips; Do not try to get graphics finalised until the text content is complete.16 Recommended reading Department of Wildlife Biology, University of Colorado - Boulder The title is not a section, but it is necessary and important.The title should be short and unambiguous, yet be an adequate description of the work.A general rule-of-thumb is that the title should contain the key words describing the work presented.
Remember that the title becomes the basis for most on-line computer searches - if your title is insufficient, few people will find or read your paper.For example, in a paper reporting on an experiment involving dosing mice with the sex hormone estrogen and watching for a certain kind of courtship behavior, a poor title would be: Mouse Behavior Why? It is very general, and could be referring to any of a number of mouse behaviors.A better title would be: The Effects of Estrogen on the Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice Why? Because the key words identify a specific behavior, a modifying agent, and the experimental organism.If possible, give the key result of the study in the title, as seen in the first example.Similarly, the above title could be restated as: Estrogen Stimulates Intensity of Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice 4.
clearly state the implications of the answers your results gave you.
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Whereas the Title can only make the simplest statement about the content of your article, the Abstract allows you to elaborate more on each major aspect of the paper.The length of your Abstract should be kept to about 200-300 words maximum (a typical standard length for journals.) Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper (i Need to order a lab report math 8 hours Harvard single spaced Undergraduate.) Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper (i.
) to two or three sentences, if possible.The Abstract helps readers decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper, or it may be the only part they can obtain via electronic literature searches or in published abstracts., summary results, observations, trends, etc 20 Jan 2017 - Your Essay: Help Write Lab Report 99% orders delivered on time! While this lab help write report may make its martyrs, faith, selfits were ready for that, he was often the software and stem vulnerabilities will help them Original Papers: Help Write Lab Report the best academic content customized!., summary results, observations, trends, etc.) must be included to make the Abstract useful to someone who may to reference your work.How do you know when you have enough information in your Abstract? A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing an study similar to the one you are reporting.If your Abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there? 2.Use the active voice when possible, but much of it may require passive constructions.Write your Abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly.Maximum length should be 200-300 words, usually in a single paragraph.The Abstract abbreviations or terms that may be confusing to readers, any sort of illustration, figure, or table, or references to them.
Strategy: Although it is the first section of your paper, the Abstract, by definition, must be written last since it will summarize the paper.To begin composing your Abstract, take whole sentences or key phrases from each section and put them in a sequence which summarizes the paper.Then set about revising or adding words to make it all cohesive and clear.As you become more proficient you will most likely compose the Abstract from scratch.
Check your work : Once you have the completed abstract, check to make sure that the information in the abstract completely agrees with what is written in the paper.Confirm that all the information appearing the abstract actually appears in the body of the paper.INTRODUCTION Structure : The structure of the Introduction can be thought of as an inverted triangle - the broadest part at the top representing the most general information and focusing down to the specific problem you studied.Organize the information to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the Introduction, then narrow toward the more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your statement of purpose and rationale.
A good way to get on track is to sketch out the Introduction backwards; start with the specific purpose and then decide what is the scientific context in which you are asking the question(s) your study addresses.Once the scientific context is decided, then you'll have a good sense of what level and type of general information with which the Introduction should begin.Here is the information should flow in your Introduction: Begin your Introduction by clearly identifying the subject area of interest.Do this by using key words from your Title in the first few sentences of the Introduction to get it focused directly on topic at the appropriate level.
This insures that you get to the primary subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general.
For example, in the mouse behavior paper, the words hormones and Organize your presentation so your reader will understand the logical flow of the experiment(s); subheadings work well for this purpose.
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Each experiment or procedure should be presented as a unit, even if it was broken up over time.The experimental design and procedure are sometimes most efficiently presented as an integrated unit, because otherwise it would be difficult to split them up.In general, provide enough quantitative detail (how much, how long, when, etc Need to buy lab report math Custom writing American Platinum Business.In general, provide enough quantitative detail (how much, how long, when, etc.
) about your experimental protocol such that other scientists could reproduce your experiments.
You should also indicate the statistical procedures used to analyze your results, including the probability level at which you determined significance (usually at 0.Style: The style in this section should read as if you were verbally describing the conduct of the experiment.You may use the active voice to a certain extent, although this section requires more use of third person, passive constructions than others.
Avoid use of the first person in this section.Remember to use the past tense throughout - the work being reported is done, and was performed in the past, not the future.The Methods section is nota step-by-step, directive, protocol as you might see in your lab manual.typical how they were handled, fed, and housed before the experiment, (4) how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment.In genetics studies include the strains or genetic stocks used.
For some studies, age may be an important factor.For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Seedlings or mature plants? FOR FIELD STUDIES ONLY field study was conducted.physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims., 10-15 April 1994) and the exact location of the study area.Location data must be as precise as possible: "Grover Nature Preserve, mi SW Grover, Maine" rather than "Grover Nature Preserve" or "Grover".When possible, give the actual latitude and longitude position of the site: these can be obtained using handheld GPS units, OR, from web resources such as Google Earth( TM ).It is often a good idea to include a map (labeled as a Figure) showing the study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area.Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area.
NOTE: not report the date and location of the study UNLESS it is necessary information for someone to have who might wish to repeat your work or use the same facility.If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the lab or facility.measured, what form the data take, etc.Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, NOT by an ambiguous, generic name or number (e.
) When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment.A general experimental design worksheet is available to help plan your experiments in the core courses.
Describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings.
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Foremost in your description should be the "quantitative" aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc., that another scientist needs in order to duplicate your experiment.When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the procedures (e Best website to get math lab report Academic 2 days US Letter Size American.When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the procedures (e.
, serial dilution) or equipment used (e., autopipetter) since other scientists will likely be familiar with them already.You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and brand or category (e.prep centrifuge), particularly if they are not commonly found in most labs.It is appropriate to report, parenthetically, the source (vendor) and catalog number for reagents used, e how to write a geography paper A4 (British/European) 7 days Premium.It is appropriate to report, parenthetically, the source (vendor) and catalog number for reagents used, e." When using a method described in another published source, you can save time and words by providing the relevant citation to the source.Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method.NOTE : Very frequently the experimental design and data collection procedures for an experiment cannot be separated and must be integrated together.If you find yourself repeating lots of information about the experimental design when describing the data collection procedure(s), likely you can combine them and be more concise., in your lab notebook, in the Methods description.Of course you did, because that is what all good scientists do, and it is a given that you recorded your measurements and observations.Describe how the data were summarized and analyzed.Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and which analyses (usually hypothesis tests) were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance.
The information should include: Statistical software used : Sometimes it is necessary to report which statistical software you used; this would be at the discretion of your instructor or the journal; how the data were measures of variability (SD,SEM, 95% CI, etc) this lets you avoid having to repeatedly indicate you are using mean ± SD or SEM.which statistical tests used with reference to the particular questions, or kinds of questions, they address.For example, "A Paired t-test was used to compare mean flight duration before and after applying stablizers to the glider's wings." "One way ANOVA was used to compare mean weight gain in weight-matched calves fed the three different rations." "Comparisons among the three pH treatment groups for each variable were done using one way ANOVA (with Tukey's post hoc test) or a Kruskal-Wallis Test (with Dunn's post hoc test).
The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to your figures and tables as you proceed.Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text (usually parenthetically) or in the relevant Tables or Figures (in the legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure).The Results section should be organized around Tables and/or Figures that should be sequenced to present your key findings in a logical order.The text of the Results section should be crafted to follow this sequence and highlight the evidence needed to answer the questions/hypotheses you investigated.
Important negative results should be reported, too.Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Figures.
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Style: Write the text of the Results section concisely and objectively.The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible.
The transition into interpretive language can be a slippery slope Official “Do Not Use” List1 Use Instead Write unit Do Not Use Potential Problem number “4” (four) or “cc” Mistaken for IV (intravenous) or the number 10 (ten) IU to demonstrate the level of precision of the value being reported, such as for laboratory results, imaging studies that report size of lesions, or catheter/tube sizes..The transition into interpretive language can be a slippery slope.
Consider the following two examples: This example highlights the trend/difference that the author wants the reader to focus: The duration of exposure to running water had a pronounced effect on cumulative seed germination percentages (Fig.
Seeds exposed to the 2-day treatment had the highest cumulative germination (84%), 1 The thesis is a monograph, ie, a self-contained piece of work, written solely by the PhD can- didate and no-one else clear gap for a possible novel academic contribution, and spells out a so-called hypothesis, which duction, motivation, related work, experiments, conclusions) tell us nothing about the content. I generally .Seeds exposed to the 2-day treatment had the highest cumulative germination (84%), 1.25 times that of the 12-h or 5-day groups and 4 times that of controls The thesis is a monograph, ie, a self-contained piece of work, written solely by the PhD can- didate and no-one else clear gap for a possible novel academic contribution, and spells out a so-called hypothesis, which duction, motivation, related work, experiments, conclusions) tell us nothing about the content. I generally .25 times that of the 12-h or 5-day groups and 4 times that of controls.In contrast, this example strays subtly into interpretation by referring to optimality (a conceptual model) and tieing the observed result to that idea: The results of the germination experiment (Fig.2) suggest that the optimal time for running-water treatment is 2 days.
This group showed the highest cumulative germination (84%), with longer (5 d) or shorter (12 h) exposures producing smaller gains in germination when compared to the control group.The body of the Results section is a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to each of the Tables and Figures.The text should guide the reader through your results stressing the key results which provide the answers to the question(s) investigated.You must refer to each Table and/or Figure individually and in sequence (see numbering sequence), and clearly indicate for the reader the key results that each conveys.
Key results depend on your questions, they might include obvious trends, important differences, similarities, correlations, maximums, minimums, etc.Some problems to avoid Do not reiterate each value from a Figure or Table - only the key result or trends that each conveys.Do not present the same data in both a Table and Figure - this is considered redundant and a waste of space and energy.Decide which format best shows the result and go with it.
Do not p-value) are usually reported parenthetically in conjunction with the biological results they support.
Always report your results with parenthetical reference to the statistical conclusion that supports your finding (if statistical tests are being used in your course).This parenthetical reference should include the statistical test used and the level of significance (test statistic and DF are optional).For example, if you found that the mean height of male Biology majors was significantly larger than that of female Biology majors, you might report this result (in blue) and your statistical conclusion (shown in red) as follows: "Males (180.6 cm; n=34) in the AY 1995 pool of Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5." If the summary statistics are shown in a figure, the sentence above need not report them specifically, but must include a reference to the figure where they may be seen: "Males averaged 12.5 cm taller than females in the AY 1995 pool of Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5." Note that the report of the key result (shown in blue) would be identical in a paper written for a course in which statistical testing is not employed - the section shown in red would simply not appear except reference to the figure.Avoid devoting whole sentences to report a statistical outcome alone.
Use and over-use of the word "significant" : Your results will read much more cleanly if you avoid overuse of the word siginifcant in any of its forms.In scientific studies, the use of this word implies that a statistical test was employed to make a decision about the data; in this case the test indicated a larger difference in mean heights than you would expect to get by chance alone.
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Limit the use of the word "significant" to this purpose only.If your parenthetical statistical information includes a p-value that indicates significance (usually when p< 0.05), it is unncecssary (and redundant) to use the word "significant" in the body of the sentence (see example above) because we all interpret the p-value the same way Help me write a math lab report 61 pages / 16775 words Business Standard US Letter Size.
05), it is unncecssary (and redundant) to use the word "significant" in the body of the sentence (see example above) because we all interpret the p-value the same way.
Likewise, when you report that one group mean is somehow different from another (larger, smaller, increased, decreased, etc), it will be understood by your reader that you have tested this and found the difference to be statisticallysignificant, especially if you also report a p-value < 0.Present the results of your experiment(s) in a sequence that will logically support (or provide evidence against) the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction Best website to buy lab report math American University Turabian double spaced.Present the results of your experiment(s) in a sequence that will logically support (or provide evidence against) the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction.For example, in reporting a study of the effect of an experimental diet on the skeletal mass of the rat, consider first giving the data on skeletal mass for the rats fed the control diet and then give the data for the rats fed the experimental diet.negative results - they are important! If you did not get the anticipated results, it may mean your hypothesis was incorrect and needs to be reformulated, or perhaps you have stumbled onto something unexpected that warrants further study.
Moreover, the absence of an effect may be very telling in many situations.In any case, your results may be of importance to others even though they did not support your hypothesis.Do not fall into the trap of thinking that results contrary to what you expected are necessarily "bad data".If you carried out the work well, they are simply your results and need interpretation.Many important discoveries can be traced to "bad data".
Always enter the appropriate units when reporting data or summary statistics.for an the mean length was 10 m ", or, " " after the error value, e.The Discussion will always connect to the Introduction by way of the question(s) or hypotheses you posed and the literature you cited, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the Introduction.Instead, it tells how your study has moved us forward from the place you left us at the end of the Introduction.Fundamental questions to answer here include: Do your results provide answers to your testable hypotheses? If so, how do you interpret your findings? Do your findings agree with what others have shown? If not, do they suggest an alternative explanation or perhaps a unforseen design flaw in your experiment (or theirs?) Given your conclusions, what is our new understanding of the problem you investigated and outlined in the Introduction? If warranted, what would be the next step in your study, e.Style : Use the active voice whenever possible in this section.Watch out for wordy phrases; be concise and make your points clearly.Use of the first person is okay, but too much use of the first person may actually distract the reader from the main points.
Approach : Organize the Discussion to address each of the experiments or studies for which you presented results; discuss each in the same sequence as presented in the Results, providing your interpretation of what they mean in the larger context of the problem.Do not waste entire sentences restating your results; if you need to remind the reader of the result to be discussed, use "bridge sentences" that relate the result to the interpretation: "The slow response of the lead-exposed neurons relative to controls suggests that.You will necessarily make reference to the findings of others in order to support your subheadings, if need be, to help organize your presentation.Be wary of mistaking the reiteration of a result for an interpretation, and make sure that no new results are presented here that rightly belong in the results.
You must relate your work to the findings of other studies - including previous studies you may have done and those of other investigators.As stated previously, you may find crucial information in someone else's study that helps you interpret your own data, or perhaps you will be able to reinterpret others' findings in light of yours.In either case you should discuss reasons for similarities and differences between yours and others' findings.
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Consider how the results of other studies may be combined with yours to derive a new or perhaps better substantiated understanding of the problem.Be sure to state the conclusions that can be drawn from your results in light of these considerations.
You may also choose to briefly mention further studies you would do to clarify your working hypotheses Best website to order an math lab report for me double spaced Academic Premium ASA.You may also choose to briefly mention further studies you would do to clarify your working hypotheses.
Make sure to reference any outside sources as shown in the Introduction section.Do not introduce new results in the Discussion.Although you might occasionally include in this section tables and figures which help explain something you are discussing, they must not contain new data (from your study) that should have been presented earlier Get writing assistance lab report math US Letter Size Academic 11 days Freshman.Although you might occasionally include in this section tables and figures which help explain something you are discussing, they must not contain new data (from your study) that should have been presented earlier.They might be flow diagrams, accumulation of data from the literature, or something that shows how one type of data leads to or correlates with another, etc.
For example, if you were studying a membrane-bound transport channel and you discovered a new bit of information about its mechanism, you might present a diagram showing how your findings helps to explain the channel's mechanism equine-research-inc.com/term-paper/computer-science.php.For example, if you were studying a membrane-bound transport channel and you discovered a new bit of information about its mechanism, you might present a diagram showing how your findings helps to explain the channel's mechanism.| If, in your experiment, you received any significant help in thinking up, designing, or carrying out the work, or received materials from someone who did you a favor by supplying them, you must acknowledge their assistance and the service or material provided.Authors always acknowledge only if an instructor or other individual critiqued the draft prior to evaluation) and any sources of funding that supported the research., 1st person, objectivity) are relaxed somewhat here, Acknowledgments are always brief and never flowery.Instructions for writing full citations for various sources are given in on separate page.A complete format list for virtually all types of publication may be found in Huth and others(1994) .
extra photographs explanation of formulas, either already known ones, or especially if you have "invented" some statistical or other mathematical procedures for data analysis.specialized computer programs for a particular procedure full generic names of chemicals or compounds that you have referred to in somewhat abbreviated fashion or by some common name in the text of your paper.Figures and Tables in Appendices Figures and Tables are often found in an appendix.These should be formatted as discussed previously (see Tables and Figures), but are numbered in a separate sequence from those found in the body of the paper.
So, the first Figure in the appendix would be Figure 1, the first Table would be Table 1, and so forth.In situations when multiple appendices are used, the Table and Figure numbering must indicate the appendix number as well (see Huth and others, 1994).