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6 In class, over the course of a semester, I tend to build up a mental model of individual students' communication abilities.For example, one student might seem more or less eloquent than another when they speak.

One might make more cogent points than another Is MIT Giving Away the Farm MIT Technology Review.One might make more cogent points than another.

Occasionally, I will receive an essay which appears exceptionally eloquent and cogent, from students who seemed distinctly average.Of course, I make the cursory checks for plagiarism (searching certain unlikely phrases, etc.), but if nothing comes up, I sometimes still remain unconvinced that the work is the student's own.Some sites offer to sell the services of trained academics and graduate students for menial essay writing, and often the questionable assignments look more like the quick and under-edited work of a master than the polished work of a novice equine-research-inc.com/paper/how-to-write-a-geography-paper-a4-british-european-7-days-premium-originality.

Some sites offer to sell the services of trained academics and graduate students for menial essay writing, and often the questionable assignments look more like the quick and under-edited work of a master than the polished work of a novice.

Of course, if the essays are paid for, and original, it's naturally very hard to prove it.Are there any techniques I could use to determine whether an essay that I suspect was written by someone else, but not published elsewhere, is a student's own work? Are there any steps I can take to ensure I don't receive questionable essays in the first place? up vote 77 down vote accepted Are there any techniques I could use to determine whether an essay that I suspect was written by someone else, but not published elsewhere, is a student's own work? Ask the student to come to your office hours or a private meeting.Then, say: "I was really impressed by your recent paper, it was an excellent piece of work! Let's discuss it some more." Student who did the work will be able to discuss said work intelligently.

Student who didn't do the work is unlikely to be able to carry on an intelligent conversation about said work.

(This still isn't proof of any kind, and you can't accuse student of cheating without some evidence - but if you're lucky, student will at least be spooked enough to never do it again.) Are there any steps I can take to ensure I don't receive questionable essays in the first place? Assign essays that are a few steps beyond, but still closely tied to, what's been discussed in class, such that somebody who wasn't in the class will not be able to produce the kind of essay you're expecting (the effectiveness of this depends very much on the subject matter).First, begin any essay assignment with clear instructions on the amount of outside assistance that is allowed.Many universities have "drop in writing tutors" who are paid (albeit often rather modestly) to help students with their writing assignments.These tutors are well-trained on how not to help too much: e.

they probably do not write down as much as a complete sentence that the student has not already suggested.Having students expressly acknowledge the outside help that they get, even if absolutely legitimate, helps towards fostering good academic practices.Thus if they go to the university's writing center or some similar entity, that's fine (assuming that above it has been clarified by the instructor to be fine; but if your university has a writing center then it seems like a bad idea not to allow your students to use it in at least some ways), but they should still acknowledge it.This goes a long way to combating the problem of "mysterious diction", i.

, the isolated turn of phrase that you just don't quite believe came from the student.You should really enforce this practice: if it turns out that a student went to the writing center and didn't report it, lower their grade at least slightly: this helps to reiterate that this is very important to you.In fact: Communicate absolutely clearly that in academia there is no sin worse than passing off someone's ideas and/or work as your own.I think that most undergraduates know that this is something they are not supposed to do, but many don't seem to understand that this is a very serious crime.

To me at least, the crime is so serious that -- in light of the difficulties of definitively "catching" the student -- the penalties should be clarified in advance to be quite severe.At my university, the absolute minimum penalty for this is a grade of 0 on the assignment.I would say though that a student who paid someone else to write a paper for them and is caught deserves to fail the entire course.Structure a written assignment more than just asking for a full-blown paper at the end.

This has the merit of being a good practice for other reasons.Even in mathematics courses I sometimes ask students to write papers, and I have learned from hard experience that if you don't check in with them while they are doing the work then the final quality of the product is going to be ridiculously spotty: e.it will turn out that some students simply didn't understand what you were asking them to do to the extent that you do not recognize what they turn in as being a specimen (however poor) of what you asked for.For a significant paper in an undergraduate course it could be appropriate to meet with the student several times before they turn in the final version: once to determine and have you sign off on an appropriate topic, and at least once to show you their partial work, giving you a chance to adjust them back on track if need be.

If you break the assignment up into pieces like this, then it becomes at the same time harder for a student to pay someone else to do it and also easier for them to do it themselves.I have to imagine that a lot of this professional paper-writing is done when a student realizes that they have waited until the last 24-72 hours before the paper is due.

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Someone can write a good paper under those severe time constraints, but they can't.Consider having a classroom component accompany any significant written work.This works better in some courses than others, depending on both the size of the course and the subject matter 11 Jan 2017 - But what if they divide up the homework problems or study questions so that each person does only a few, but everyone gets the answers? Collaboration on exams or quizzes further highlights the messiness of the distinctions. If a student admits to a group working on quiz questions that he doesn't know an  .

This works better in some courses than others, depending on both the size of the course and the subject matter.

Hearing 25 different presentations on whether and in what way Madame Bovary was a proto-feminist sounds like a rather dreary use of class time.But let me say that in every graduate (math) course I teach, whether I assign written homework or not I always have a "problem session", usually about once a week and lasting at least an hour, in which the students present their solutions to me and to each other (with whatever written notes they want, of course).I don't do this because I'm worried that their written work will not be their own, not really, but it is definitely a different thing to cobble together a solution from two different texts and a website (this is a totally legitimate thing to do, in my courses: in fact this sounds like a reasonable description of some of my own research!) than to actually present it in front of other people.(Again, I've learned this from hard experience: in many of the courses I teach, the course text is my own notes, sometimes written on the fly and sometimes already written.It is remarkable to me how I can give a better or worse rendition of something that I looked up from my own lecture notes on any given day.

Sometimes I don't succeed in getting the material as firmly in my head as I would like in the time allotted to prepare that day's lecture.) If there is both an oral and a written component, then layering is again a good thing: maybe the student turns in some preliminary written thing, then they give a presentation on it, then they improve their written work based on the feedback they got from the presentation.Again, this seems more appropriate in some courses than others, but when it is appropriate the students learn a lot: perhaps they will even be too busy learning and working to think to get someone else to write their paper.up vote 16 down vote I wish these random thoughts can supplement the other good answers and comments.Mainly, I wish to address the second question: "Are there any steps I can take to ensure I don't receive questionable essays in the first place?" Don't start off with negative thoughts/suspicion so soon: Some introverted people can perfectly blend into the background in class, but produce very thoughtful written work because they actually put good amount of thought into the piece.

It's like you have never noticed this person's existence until you have read the student's written work.For this reason, I'd suggest taking a more trusting approach.Set up a code of honor: In some professional degrees students often have to sign a code of honor.You may check with the department head if something like this can be set up for all the students.You can also create your own and have the students read, discuss, question, and sign on the first day of the class.

A code of honor will help clarifying what is and is not expected in the course, and will help to i) remind students to be honest, and ii) serve as a foundation contract in case someone really does cheat.I do believe there are students with malicious intention, trying the cheat their way through.However, I also believe there are some of them who did it because "Well, the lecturer never said I can't." It is saddening that nowadays teachers have to lay out all these criteria, but I also would see this chance as bringing the students, who may be from diverse backgrounds, onto the same page regarding ethics and professionalism.

Downplay the grade proportion of the paper: The incentive to hire a ghost writer is likely proportional to the percentage of the final grade attributed to that piece.

Try lower it, and introduce some other forms of assessment that are less likely to be done by someone else: In-class exercise, individual/group presentation, etc.Similarly, give smaller and/or more frequent writing assignments: In questionnaire design, if one asks more questions on the same construct, the reliability tends to go up.Basing on this idea, you may consider giving more than one written assignment.This can let you i) detect within-student fluctuation (How did this person suddenly write so well?) and ii) perhaps allow students to express their thoughts or work on somehow different topics/from a different angle.

Higher frequency may also introduce less incentive to hire a ghost writer.Implement a progressive assignment to foster the sense of ownership: You may also consider modifying your assignment so that students will need to work on it and report to you step by step, from concept to review, from review to analysis, from analysis to draft, and from draft to final version.This method will allow you to first get a sense of their thought process (which is a lot more objective than checking their in-class behaviors), and it will also enhance the student's sense of owning the piece as well as understanding of the contents.This can likely decrease the need or urgency to seek ghost writers.

Be very clear what is and is not allowed: I'd just put this in as a food for thought.We may often encourage people, especially those with English as second language, to either let native speakers look at their work or seek professional editors' help to improve their written piece.Is this allowed? Sometimes a run of very simple edit can make the piece quite eloquent, and some editors may either go to town in their editing or help the student to flush out their ideas more clearly during the face-to-face meeting.Is this allowed? I am not pro or against this practice of getting an editor's help; I just wish to point out that there can be much grey area when judging if no clear rules are laid out.

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up vote 1 down vote Probably not helpful to your specific case here, but maybe schools could do what is increasingly common in other industries and aspects of law enforcement: Offer whistle-blower awards.

, if you provide information leading to a student being issued with a citation, you get $1,000.If you provide information leading to a student being suspended, you get $3,000 We also hope you will consider ways you can enter our conversations about writing not only with others on this campus but with an even broader audience.   If we're to be in the business of education rather than that of schooling, one of our long-range goals must be to help students become life-long learners. Developing  .If you provide information leading to a student being suspended, you get $3,000.

If you provide information leading to a student being expelled, you get $5,000.

Promise to keep the identity of the whistle-blower completely confidential How to order an homework components technology APA Writing 28 pages / 7700 words Standard.Promise to keep the identity of the whistle-blower completely confidential.And if the whistle-blower was involved in any wrongdoing, he is automatically exonerated (e.if two students were cheating on your test, the one who reports it first gets off the hook while the other is expelled) equine-research-inc.com/powerpoint-presentation/best-websites-to-get-a-ethnicity-studies-powerpoint-presentation-a4-british-european-american-mla-at-an-affordable-price.if two students were cheating on your test, the one who reports it first gets off the hook while the other is expelled).Make your whistle-blowing policy well-known and public.

Then many of these online guys who are paid to write these papers will be tempted to submit evidence.The money to pay for this could be simply taken as a fine from the student.It could all be written into the Academic Honor Code that the student must sign in order to enroll at the school., "I agree that if I am given a citation due to a violation of the Academic Honor Code, I may be fined up to $1,000.Such funds will be used to pay any whistle-blower involved." Is MIT Giving Away the Farm? The surprising logic of MIT’s free online education program.August 21, 2012 One Friday morning last April, Bethany LaPenta, a sophomore electrical-engineering and computer science major, was in her room in Simmons, sitting at her computer and eating a bowl of Apple Jacks.She was in her pajamas, and electronic dance music was streaming from the computer’s speakers.

But she wasn’t checking her e-mail or updating her Facebook profile.She was taking an exam for her Circuits and Electronics course, 6.Circuits and Electronics was the first course offered through MITx, an ambitious project that aims to reproduce the MIT educational experience online for a worldwide audience, with video lectures, virtual lab experiments, and automatically graded homework assignments and exams.But the online students who began taking the course in March were about a month behind 20 MIT students—including LaPenta—who were test-driving the system on campus.

This story is part of the September/October 2012 Issue of the MIT News Magazine Advance troubleshooting was essential, as the MITx team was venturing into uncharted waters.“We had no idea what would happen,” says Anant Agarwal, a professor of electrical engineering and computer science (EECS) who teaches 6.“We would have been embarrassed if only 500 people signed up for it.But it would be a great success if 10,000 did.

002x, went live in March 2012, more than 154,000 people enrolled.In the end, 7,157 online students would pass 6.In May, the already massive experiment in online learning grew larger still when MIT and Harvard announced the formation of edX, a joint initiative—backed by $30 million from each school—that would offer online courses not only from its founding partners but from other universities as well.The technological platform built for MITx would serve as the foundation of the edX platform.The benefits of MITx to a worldwide audience were obvious.“MITx is animated by a sense of obligation to maximize human potential,” wrote the Chronicle of Higher Education’s Kevin Carey.“It is simply untenable to claim global leadership in educating a planet of seven billion people when you hoard your educational offerings for a few thousand fortunates living together on a small patch of land.

” The benefits to MIT, on the other hand, were more obscure.Administrators talked about the possibility of charging only a modest fee to MITx students who wanted certificates of mastery; the initial course was offered free of charge, and at press time edX was in the process of being incorporated as a nonprofit.MIT seemed bent on giving away a product—an MIT education—for which it charges about $200,000.“Will edX Put Harvard and MIT Out of Business?” asked a headline on Forbes magazine’s website.

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Agarwal, however, believes that edX should improve the educational experience in a way that benefits MIT students no less than those who take courses online.

“We really haven’t applied technology—computing technology, Internet technology—to education,” he says.“With online learning, we can truly reinvent education Computer Science Capstone Projects.“With online learning, we can truly reinvent education.

” He says the program will actually enhance the value of an on-campus MIT education, letting professors and teaching assistants work more directly with students by liberating them from the time-consuming obligations to lecture and grade.Undergraduate courses could adopt what Agarwal calls the “apprenticeship model,” in which students pursue semester-long research projects under faculty guidance.“People on campus get a whole different experience,” he says.

“You can create a much better, augmented experience than a pure online experience.” And only on-campus students can receive MIT degrees.EdX could also expand the pool of applicants to MIT, Agarwal argues.Already, he says, it’s providing an object lesson in the rigor of an MIT education.On the online bulletin board dedicated to 6.

002x, “I’ve seen discussions that say, ‘Wow, this stuff is hard,’” he says.“People talk about getting a new respect for MIT students.” The OCW Precedent MITx grew out of a series of meetings over a span of five years, in which Rafael Reif, then the Institute’s provost, consulted with faculty, administrators, and student representatives on how technology could improve the quality of on-campus education.The program launched in December 2011, and Reif formally appointed ­Agarwal its director in March 2012; in May, Agarwal stepped down as director of CSAIL to become president of edX.This fall, MITx (the name now refers to MIT courses offered through edX) is hosting two new online classes in addition to 6.

002x: Introduction to Solid State Chemistry and Introduction to Computer Science and Programming.Harvard and the University of California, Berkeley, will each offer two courses on edX as well.From there, edX course offerings will expand according to professors’ interest and students’ demand.But in many ways, MITx builds on the Institute’s decade-old ­OpenCourseWare (OCW) initiative, which put MIT course materials such as syllabi and lecture notes—and ultimately, in some cases, lecture videos—online.When it debuted, OCW too prompted speculation about whether it was in MIT’s interest.

“A lot of people raised similar questions,” says Agarwal.“But it was very good for MIT in many respects.One is that MIT came to be known as a great university of the world.” More specifically, he says, “it helped the MIT brand.It brought a lot of goodwill to MIT, and recruiting became a lot easier.

” Indeed, in a 2010 survey, 57 percent of MIT undergrads reported that they had been aware of OCW before applying to MIT, and of those, 31 percent said that OCW had a “significant” or “very significant” influence on their decision to attend.Among graduate students, the numbers were 45 and 30 percent, respectively.A separate faculty survey found that 34 percent of faculty who had posted material on OCW felt the site had improved their professional standing, and 58 percent of all respondents felt that OCW had enhanced their departments’ reputations.“Think of edX and MITx as the next big step,” Agarwal says.“A lot of the same kinds of things that made OCW good for MIT continue to apply here.

” Experimental Platform From the outset, Agarwal says, MITx was envisioned as a platform on which to conduct pedagogical experiments.Although he’s reluctant to speculate about what those experiments might look like—for him, part of the appeal of the project is its open-endedness—he offers a few examples based on his and his colleagues’ experience with 6.002x mirrored that of a conventional on-campus course, with lectures and reading assignments that followed a prescribed order, weekly problem sets that tested students’ mastery of the concepts presented in the lectures and reading, and lab experiments that made those concepts vivid.

But, Agarwal suggests, MITx could vary that formula—for example, by presenting students with problems first and requiring them to dig up the information necessary to solve them.

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With thousands of students adopting each approach simultaneously, a comparison of the two would be statistically meaningful.Students’ exam performance would indicate the relative merits of each.002x, students were allowed to check the accuracy of their answers to homework problems; if they got the answers wrong, they could rework the problems and resubmit .

002x, students were allowed to check the accuracy of their answers to homework problems; if they got the answers wrong, they could rework the problems and resubmit.

Some students in the on-campus test group felt that that improved their understanding of the material; they were able to identify and correct flaws in their reasoning.“You knew exactly when you were getting stuff right and when you weren’t,” says 6.“With a physical P-set, you just keep going until you can’t figure out anything else, and you figure, ‘This is 70 percent likely that it’s going to be right,’ and you turn it in Saxon Geometry Homework Help Best Academic Papers Writing nbsp.“With a physical P-set, you just keep going until you can’t figure out anything else, and you figure, ‘This is 70 percent likely that it’s going to be right,’ and you turn it in.And you may not think about it ever again unless you specifically take your P-set and then compare it to the answer set, which I don’t think most people do.

” Other students, however, reported that they would simply modify their answers randomly—multiplying or dividing by 2 , say—until they were correct.But again, the scale of the online course is so large that thousands of students could be offered unlimited checks, thousands of students could be offered few or no checks, and their exam performance could be compared.“The platform built by edX chief scientist Piotr Mitros, Dave Ormsbee, and the rest of our development team allows us to give different batches of students slightly different experiences so that we can do these kinds of tests,” Agarwal says.Focused Energies Of course, developing new educational technologies need not mean releasing them, free of charge, to the wider world.But doing so, Agarwal believes, will give edX a size and global reach that will help it concentrate resources, establish technical standards, and realize economies of scale that will yield much more useful results much faster.

“We’ve been trying to do various on-campus initiatives for a couple of decades,” Agarwal says.Thinking big can serve as a lightning rod for people to come together and focus all their effort along one vector, so that you can do something much, much bigger.” “We’ve teamed up with Harvard, and we’re also going to be working with other universities around the world,” he adds.

“So I think this creates a force-multiplier effect.” For prospective donors, a project that promises to improve the quality of education in the developing world is also more appealing than one whose beneficiaries are students lucky enough to attend MIT and Harvard.Agarwal says that edX is already talking with several foundations and private philanthropists.“A not-for-profit approach to democratizing education is something of great interest to them.

” And building an international community of users has the side effect of creating an international community of developers.The technical platform is still a work in progress, but once it’s stabilized, edX plans to release the underlying code under an open-source license.“The benefit of doing that rather than doing it on your own is that you can get the community to develop and improve upon it,” Agarwal says.002x students didn’t even wait for the release of the edX source code before pitching in.“As people have requested improvements, many of the students themselves are giving us pieces of code and technologies that we are now making available worldwide,” he says.For instance, says Piotr Mitros, one student wrote an online textbook viewer that worked better than the MITx version on mobile devices; another wrote a program that let students download the course videos from ­YouTube for off-line viewing.“Several students wrote user scripts for Firefox that added substantial functionality to the courseware—from small things like a volume control for the video player to bigger things like better visualization of which problems are graded, or integration of the social components,” Mitros says.The openness of edX paid more direct dividends for the MIT students in the experimental section of 6.

The MITx site hosted two discussion forums dedicated to the course, one for the MIT students and another for those off campus.“The external course had a larger user base, so the online forum was a lot more responsive,” says LaPenta.“In the internal course, you’d post a question, and a few days later you’d get an answer.Whereas with the online course, you’d post a question and three or four responses would appear within 30 minutes.

” Because the external students were a month behind the on-campus students, they weren’t much help on problem sets, which had specific due dates.But LaPenta says she did rely on the forum to study for exams.“If there was a concept that I was unclear on, it turned out that five other people had the same question,” she says.” Agarwal adds that students who took the time to answer questions on the forum also solidified their own understanding of the material.

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“You never really learn something until you have to teach it,” he says.Test Drive For the students in the experimental on-campus group, however, most of the benefits of the MITx platform had to do with the technologies themselves, not the fact that 154,000 other people were also using them.Several students cited the convenience of video lectures Best websites to order a components technology homework 100% original Academic two hours 39 pages / 10725 words double spaced.Several students cited the convenience of video lectures.

“I was managing five classes this semester, so it would have been a lot harder to go to lecture, go to recitation, do all the stuff,” LaPenta says.“It was a lot more convenient for me than a restricted time that I had to go to lecture.

” Besides, she adds, “I work better later at night 20 Oct 2017 - Course Summary my high school student won't do homework The School of English, renowned for its excellence in research and teaching, offers masters' in creative writing led by   Certificates will be awarded upon completion of both an undergraduate degree and certificate program requirements..” Besides, she adds, “I work better later at night.” Ku says that unlike LaPenta, he typically watched the lectures at the same time every week.But “you can watch them at any speed, fromequine-research-inc.com/thesis-proposal/help-me-write-a-latin-american-studies-thesis-proposal-ama-writing-from-scratch-43-pages-11825-words-without-plagiarism.But “you can watch them at any speed, from .They also modulated the voice, so it’s not higher pitched with the speed increase.” “When you want a copy of the notes, it’s right in front of you already,” adds David Lawrence ‘14, who also took the pilot MITx class.“Everything that was written or said in the lecture is just already transcribed.

” LaPenta says she appreciated the course’s virtual lab component, a Web-based simulator of a circuit kit.“The simulations online were really accurate,” she says.“You just drag the elements onto the circuit and hit ‘Simulate.01, Introduction to Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, LaPenta had tried her hand at building physical circuits, and she didn’t miss it.“You don’t want to sit there debugging a circuit that you have right but one element is broken, which was a case that had happened in 6.01 a few times when we were prototyping our circuits,” she says.With the online simulator, “you didn’t have to deal with the technicalities of ‘Oh, is the wire in this resistor not working?’—technicalities that really slow down your learning.” “And you don’t have to worry about anything catching on fire,” she adds, laughing.

002x, the professors were still presenting traditional lectures to those students not in the experimental section, and both they and the TAs were troubleshooting the platform itself, so the automated tools were not as liberating as they might have been.Still, Agarwal, the TAs, and Gerald Sussman, a professor of electrical engineering and one of the course’s teachers, found time to meet twice a week with the students in the experimental section.Naturally, some of the discussion focused on ways to improve MITx, which suited Ku well, given that as a second-semester senior, he had volunteered for the experimental section chiefly to participate in MITx platform development.But beyond the inevitable discussions about fixing MITx bugs, conversation seemed much more free-ranging than was typical at a recitation.

Lawrence, for instance, recalls discussing the derivation of the complex impedance using the Laplace transform, something not covered in 6.002—as well as a conversation with Sussman about ham radios.“Gerry spent some time showing me pictures of a large transmitter with an inductor the size of a small car,” Lawrence says.“It was very enjoyable talking to the professors there, often about areas of circuits that were not strictly within the course material—just interesting things.“I mostly just went to hang out with the professors,” he says.Agarwal contends that MITx will lead to a more interdisciplinary undergraduate education as well.He points out that a number of participants in the experimental section were mechanical-­engineering students who had long wanted to take the course but been unable to.002 course conflicted with a required mechanical course,” he says.

“Within the department, we work rather carefully to make sure that typical courses that students take in a semester don’t conflict in terms of times, but we don’t do this across campus.” Under the apprenticeship model, MITx could also encourage interdisciplinary study by giving students flexibility in their choice of projects.A project might, say, apply concepts drawn from electrical engineering to biological questions, or use physics to address issues in economics.The Grading Challenge The theory that edX will give TAs and professors more time to work directly with students assumes that grading can be automated.

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002x, where the answers to most homework and exam questions were numerical values or mathematical expressions, but the assumption won’t hold for all courses offered through the program.How to automate grading is one of the major research questions that edX will address, but it’s by no means a new problem for MIT researchers.EECS professor Regina Barzilay works in the field of natural-language processing, which seeks algorithms for making sense of free-form texts Best website to write a components technology homework Formatting Academic Freshman 9 days.EECS professor Regina Barzilay works in the field of natural-language processing, which seeks algorithms for making sense of free-form texts.

Barzilay’s group has developed systems that automatically deciphered an ancient alphabet and deduced the meanings of words in a video game manual by playing the game.But they’ve also proposed techniques for improving automatic essay grading 21 Aug 2012 - He says the program will actually enhance the value of an on-campus MIT education, letting professors and teaching assistants work more directly with students by liberating them from the time-consuming obligations to lecture and grade. Undergraduate courses could adopt what Agarwal calls the  .

But they’ve also proposed techniques for improving automatic essay grading.

Last year a trio of researchers at the Educational Testing Service evaluated one of those techniques, using it to help score essay questions on the GRE General Test and the Test of English as a Foreign Language 21 Aug 2012 - He says the program will actually enhance the value of an on-campus MIT education, letting professors and teaching assistants work more directly with students by liberating them from the time-consuming obligations to lecture and grade. Undergraduate courses could adopt what Agarwal calls the  .Last year a trio of researchers at the Educational Testing Service evaluated one of those techniques, using it to help score essay questions on the GRE General Test and the Test of English as a Foreign Language.They found that the agreement between its scores and those assigned by human graders was comparable to the agreement between human graders themselves.Agarwal says that he and Barzilay have begun discussing how her work could be brought to bear on edX.Agarwal also cites the work of Rob Miller, who leads the User Interface Design Group at CSAIL.In recent years, Miller’s group has researched crowdsourcing, or breaking complex tasks into small, discrete units and farming them out over the Internet.

In the classic crowdsourcing scenario, participants are paid a small amount—often just a few cents—for each task they complete.Miller’s group devises techniques for organizing tasks so that they require as little of the participants’ time as possible.The researchers also develop methods for verifying participants’ work, so that the results won’t be compromised by either incompetence or malice.Miller also teaches a course called Elements of Software Construction—6.

005—in which most homework assignments consist of writing short programs.

Verifying that a program does what it’s supposed to is fairly easy to automate, but the course instructors also want to provide students with feedback on the clarity of their code.Last fall, Miller began using his group’s crowdsourcing techniques to perform code reviews.Tasks were farmed out not only to TAs, and to MIT alumni who volunteered their time, but to students in the class as well.“You want to draw on a crowd that consists of your learners—the students in the course, the students who have already taken the course—as well as, hopefully, experts in the field and teaching staff of the course,” Miller says.“The challenge is to get them to interact together in a way that provides good feedback to the students.

” If edX courses continue to draw hundreds of thousands of students a semester, they will rapidly produce a huge population of potential graders.Paying graders will probably be impractical, but Agarwal points out that MITx already provides so-called karma points to students who make regular, high-quality contributions to the discussion forums, and that high karma-point totals grant users privileged access to aspects of the edX site—say, the ability to moderate posts on the discussion forums dedicated to particular courses.Karma points could provide an incentive for crowdsourced grading.Other question-and-answer forums in the programming community, he says, provide similar ratings, which high scorers have been known to cite on their r sum s.

“That is evidence that they treat it like a real-world kind of grade point average—that it does mean something to them,” he says.Ultimately, Miller says, grading “is probably going to end up being a mix of solutions, which will be partly automatic and partly human eyeballs.” For some courses, for example, an automatic grading system like Barzilay’s could make an initial pass, with verification of the results farmed out to thousands of former students.But assuming that the grading problem can be solved and that online versions of more on-campus classes will be added, will students who have the option prefer them to the conventional versions? Lawrence, who already had extensive experience building physical circuits and missed getting his hands dirty with actual resistors and capacitors, says that it would depend on the course content.“I would definitely take the X version of a purely theoretical course,” he says.

“In fact, I think I would take any X course within MIT that was specifically tailored to include the necessary hands-on component.” The latest Insider Conversation is live! Listen to the story behind the ibe today The line between collaboration and cheating is fuzzy.It’s still clear at the edges, but messy in the middle.When students are working in groups, searching for a solution to a problem, looking through possible answers for the best one, or sorting out material to include in a presentation, that’s collaboration.When one student in the group solves the problem and everyone else copies the answer, that’s cheating.When one student fails to deliver material she or he’s been assigned and the rest of the group covers, that’s cheating.

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But what about when students study together? Given what we know about how much they can learn from and with each other, it makes sense to encourage students to work together on course content.To us that means collectively looking for answers, explaining things to each other, and using questions to test their knowledge.But what if they divide up the homework problems or study questions so that each person does only a few, but everyone gets the answers? Collaboration on exams or quizzes further highlights the messiness of the distinctions 26 Aug 2012 - Recently developed high-throughput sequencing technologies generate very large scale DNA fragments that enhance the correctness of genome assembly, but those large scale datasets are   In this capstone project, we will implement a scalable genome assembler using Apache Spark on Cloud. Apache  .But what if they divide up the homework problems or study questions so that each person does only a few, but everyone gets the answers? Collaboration on exams or quizzes further highlights the messiness of the distinctions.

If a student admits to a group working on quiz questions that he doesn’t know an answer and someone else in group identifies the right answer, explains what makes it right, and that explanation enables the first student to understand, has cheating occurred? For exams, must a student discover all answers working alone? The question can be framed more globally, when does collaboration cross the line and become cheating? Teachers have the responsibility to assess individual mastery of the material.Grades provide a measure of how well an individual knows something 6 Dec 2015 - Engineering. On this page you will find several open Engineering textbooks along with supplemental material and a few lecture videos.   Features include eBook, database of homework/quiz/test problems, solution to all problems, lectures in both Quicktime and Flash format, computer grading, and utilities..

Grades provide a measure of how well an individual knows something.

When students collaborate, when they produce work collectively, that makes it much more difficult to determine who knows what and how well they know it.Promoting collaboration and preventing cheating can feel like one of those spots between a rock and hard place.The distinctions matter because collaboration is an expectation in most professional settings.Professionals “cheat,” as we usually define it.If they don’t know an answer, they look it up.

If they don’t know how to do something, they ask someone to show them.Who contributed what is of little concern; it’s the quality of the decision that matters.Are we conveying mixed messages if we put a problem on the board and tell students to work on it with someone seated nearby, but then silently expect all homework to be completed independently? Do they see what differentiates in-class collaboration from the individual work we require that they do for grades? As far as that goes, how clear is our own thinking about what makes them different? If we don’t understand the distinctions, then we don’t have much hope of clarifying them for students.Students already have permissive attitudes about cheating—so many of them do it, despite our efforts to prevent it.

If we’re teaching students in that traditional 18-23-year-old cohort, then there’s the added power of peer pressure.If the student asking for your answer is a friend, can you say no without doing damage to the friendship? Unfortunately, it’s also possible for groups to collaborate with the intent of cheating—the giving and taking of answers without any attempt at learning.We focus our efforts on the person who’s cheated—the one who’s gotten the answer from somebody else.We don’t pay much attention to those who enabled the cheating—the ones giving away the solutions and facing no consequences when they are in fact co-conspirators.Finally, are we so focused on preventing cheating that we’re neglecting to teach the skills of collaboration? I’m wondering if the place to start is by exploring with students what it means to work collaboratively, how everyone has the responsibility to contribute, and why it’s everyone’s responsibility to prevent the undeserved taking of ideas and information from others.

That doesn’t mean everyone must always know the answer, but everyone ought to have ideas about the possible answers or at least some thoughts about how to probe the problem further.Handing out an answer to somebody who hasn’t done any work is different from trying to help someone who’s struggling but still working to understand the content.Effort on the part of the receiver is key.Writing this post has stimulated a lot of thinking (and rewriting).

I’m not sure I’ve gotten us to good answers yet.Rebecca Brent I agree with John Walkup that individual testing is often the way we evaluate the learning.Lots of learning happens during group work when stronger students help others to understand content or when the whole group together figures out what to do to solve a problem or address a question.

I know some STEM faculty members who assign group homework, but they count that work as 10-15% of the course grade.They also put a restriction in their grading policy that students must have a passing average on the individual tests before the homework (group) grade is counted in calculating the course final grade.That way, they know that a student can’t fail the tests but get lifted into passing the course on the strength of their group.Dave Porter I too agree that mixed methods of assessment are best.However, I think it is also important to recognize that the distinctions between cheating and collaborating are things we establish by the rules we impose rather than categories that are inherently and meaningfully distinct.

An activity is not cheating if it is something that is explicitly permitted by instruction from the teacher.Thus the question becomes, “What types of activities should we condone?” Often I ask myself what i might expect students to learn from doing an activity one way or another.I choose the alternative that I believe is likely to promote the greatest learning.I check with students regularly to see how things are working.

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They tend to be very candid when they see themselves as partners in their own education.

Warren Miller I believe that some of what Prof.Weimer characterizes as cheating is not cheating Help me write a custom components technology homework Undergraduate Formatting 106 pages / 29150 words double spaced.Weimer characterizes as cheating is not cheating.

It is what economists call ‘free riding’ – that is, getting a ‘free ride’ from the work of others.In group-type projects, free-riding does occur, and it does so for a variety of reasons.To expect otherwise is to object to human nature Georgia tech graduate thesis office. Second grade teacher resume sample dissertation introduction examples pearl harbor research paper outline thesis pdf download dissertation environnement et developpement durable. Graphics in presentations does homework help students learn better construction administrative  .

To expect otherwise is to object to human nature.

When I taught senior-level undergraduate business courses three decades ago, a small part of the overall grade component–5%, as I recall–was the evaluation of performance that each student in a group had to prepare on every other group participant.Knowing that there is, in the context of group work, a level of loyalty among thieves, if you will, I mandated that the students’ evaluation of one another be rank-ordered.In other words, on a given criterion, not everyone could be ‘Excellent’, ‘Above Average,’ etc.Most of the students hated having to do that.I justified it in the context of having to prepare ‘performance appraisals’ of subordinates later on, after they had graduated.

They didn’t like it, of course, but they had a hard time arguing against that stated rationale.Knowing that a ‘group mentality’ can sometimes work to a particular student’s disadvantage, I also provided space on the evaluation form for the person being evaluated to comment, disagree, etc.This enabled an individual to push back if s/he thought the evaluation was unfair.The person being evaluated wasn’t required to comment, but s/he was required to sign and date that section affirming that s/he had read the evaluation.Students learned a lot about collaboration, but they also learned that being a ‘boss’ (in the form of preparing written evaluations of others) was no walk in the park.It was as level a playing field as I could make it, and I’d do it the same way today if I resumed teaching again.However, I suspect today’s students would like those ‘Peer Performance Reviews’ a whole lot less now than they did in the 1980s because, from my vantage point, most campuses appear to be places where, figuratively speaking, the inmates are running the asylum.In my classes, most collaborative work occurs during initial learning in the classroom – I don’t tend to assign group work that is a gradable component.For assignments that are graded, I do state that students must work independently – but, I know this doesn’t happen.I do remind students to work independently and that I don’t expect to see any two answers that are the same etc.but, I know that cheating occurs (not to say that students identify this as cheating).There really is a limit as to how much we can police.In the end, it is my hope that hard work pays off – in understanding, in performance in the lab, in ability to pass the national exam, in getting a job, etc.But definitely, a few will slip through on the coat tails of others.

I feel that I need to spend my time and effort helping those that really want to learn as opposed to trying to catch those that want to find short cuts.Thank you again – such an interesting topic! Tim McKenna “Talk all you want, don’t write anything down.” has helped students at our school understand the difference between collaboration/sharing and going beyond that on individual assignments.Pat Bowne’s method has been successful for me.

Students have told me the real value of the test was being able to discuss and debate with each other before writing their own version.

With the questions in advance, they learned something with each other instead of merely preparing the test’s deliverables just to make me happy.Group work has the potential to dilute responsibility (Wikipedia: ‘social loafing’).I’ve tried various schemes to deal with it; all were a PITA one way or the other.Only the following has worked for me… Instead of splitting up the work, as might be done in industry, students share the work.Everyone must produce a draft of the entire project scope and submit it to each other and the instructor by a milestone date.

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It is graded (a non-ignorable portion of the final project) solely on participation and apparent effort, not on the details of its content beyond that it must be on topic (“marking” it is a very quick browse).Each group member digests the viewpoints of all other members.The group then assembles to debate and synthesize Write me a components technology homework plagiarism free Standard double spaced Formatting Academic.The group then assembles to debate and synthesize.

Only the final draft of discrete sections may be split up.This can reduce the number of group meetings, will improve the final quality, and considers all viewpoints scholarly writing at the undergraduate and graduate levels, emphasizing the challenges and opportunities that   Learn about and use genres unique to a discipline, e.g., prepare a business plan for a new small   quantitative, a writer will inevitably be concerned with levels of significance, restatement of the hypothesis,..

This can reduce the number of group meetings, will improve the final quality, and considers all viewpoints.

The technique is supported by research into brainstorming/idea generation best practices (introverts feel they are finally heard) and has been born out in my own experience with students scholarly writing at the undergraduate and graduate levels, emphasizing the challenges and opportunities that   Learn about and use genres unique to a discipline, e.g., prepare a business plan for a new small   quantitative, a writer will inevitably be concerned with levels of significance, restatement of the hypothesis,..The technique is supported by research into brainstorming/idea generation best practices (introverts feel they are finally heard) and has been born out in my own experience with students.The final report was never from the “best draft” from a single group member, it was always a synthesis.Akilah “Talk all you want, don’t write anything down.I had students write a play as a group, but their explanation/rationale was to be written individually.

I told them over and over (AND OVER AND OVER) that they could discuss and agree on their answers (i., who is the protagonist/antagonist of the play), but the explanations (coming up with examples to offer as proof) were to be done individually.Out of 75 students, I only had two cheat, so I’d say it was successful.For group reports in the business class, one of my colleagues had the students submit their group report but also required them to submit the portions they wrote.

She said it was usually pretty easy to see when group members were covering for each other because the person’s individual section wouldn’t match what they were supposed to have contributed to the group project.Laura Shulman I sometimes invite students to work together on a project.But when they split the work in half and then just take the answers the other one found, they risk taking WRONG answers.Better that they both do the ENTIRE project on their own and then switch papers to see if they got the same answers and, where different, work together to determine whose answer is the better one.But the issue with doing the ENTIRE project on their own is that they are then duplicating their effort.

Perhaps the best solution is that they may SPLIT the work in half but then DOUBLE CHECK the work the other did rather than blindly accept what the other did.Fumcat I have done quite a bit of the double-checking work with my history and Latin students.Also, with Latin as language exercises, one can slightly alter translations from one individual to another in the group.But, this is for in-class group assignments.

I still walk around the class and visit each group to assure that everyone is one target.Then we all switch exercises either between members of a group or between groups.Good for high school and undergraduate freshmen Laurel D Cheating on homework that is individually assessed is very common, especially among our international students who are used to “working together”.Although I do many things to make it clear what is/isn’t cheating and to prevent it, I will just mention one here.I tell them that they can use this rule of thumb: If you are looking at someone else’s paper when you are doing your work, you are cheating.

Discussing general ideas is OK, copying from others is not.(This is for homework in statistics and math classes.) So far it seems to reduce the amount of cheating.Sign up for our FREE Newsletter! First Name