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2017-12-18 2017-12-18 Every Canadian community is a gold mine of diverse people, cultures, traditions, and history.Rediscovering their wealth goes to the heart of our Canadian nature.

It is the knowledge and high regard of their roots and sense of belonging at home, school, place of work, or place of worship, to name only a few, that strengthens their feelings of who they are as Canadians vipim 2012 09 12 14 10 42 Hit 9589 Vote 115 nbsp.It is the knowledge and high regard of their roots and sense of belonging at home, school, place of work, or place of worship, to name only a few, that strengthens their feelings of who they are as Canadians.

If someone has been described as Canadian, it means that he is a part of Canadian society.They have the freedom to think for themselves, speak what they wish, and live their lives to the fullest, in turn having certain collective ideas, traits, and qualities.Generally, they possess a Canadian attitude, an acceptance of Canadian multiculturalism, and most importantly, Canadian pride.

While Canadians are sometimes depicted as a beer drinking, party loving, and rugged in attitude, when in fact they are generally quite reserved and passive.In reality, Canadians have become known for their great humanitarian efforts.Canadians are continually recognized for the way in which they go in after the occurrence of devastation and help the civilian population, of that particular community or country, get back on their feet.An example of this was seen in the Kosovo crisis, when they brought refugees to Canada and provided for them while there was war in their homeland.

They are also known for their peacekeeping ways.

They are slow and cautious when entering battles and are reluctant to choose sides between nations in acts of inhumanity and crime.People from all around the world come to Canada, looking for refuge.They have come to see Canada as a peaceful country, where they will have achance at a free and good life while being accepted and considered an equal.The concept of a multicultural country is foreign to some people because they have lived in a country where people of the same race surround them continuously.However, Canadians have come to accept and love their nations salad bowl of diverse races and cultures, and the access to knowledge and power that make opportunities and possibilities endless.

Unlike somecountries, if one has an idea or starts a business, he is free to capitalize on it and make money that he may use for the good of himself, his family, and causes that he deems worthy.This is a constant pull-factor that brings people from differentlands into Canada, and it is one of the things that make Canada great.While it is important to have, being Canadian doesnt mean you have a piece of paper called a birth certificate with Canada scrawled across the top; that is simply superficial.The most important quality of a Canadian is their pride in their country.Canada has a health care system that allows its citizens to be treated for their illnesses and sometimes even cured.They also have an abundance of natural resources like wheat, oil, lumber, and fresh water that help them to maintain a steady economy.Then there is the pride and joy of the nation, hockey.Everyone knows it, every country plays it, but it remains Canadian.Their pride can be seen not only when they rise to hear their national anthem, but also in the way they sew the Canadian flag onto their backpacks and coats, the way they hold their heads high in othercountries, and in the infamous Molson Canadian Anthem.

It is their pride that creates a feeling of family across the nation.While their humanitarian attitudes and acceptance of diversity make them stand out in the crowd of other nations, their pride separates them from the rest.They continually strive to better themselves as individuals and as a whole, by raising their education standards for Canadian youth, keeping their health care system functioning at full capacity and maintaining a peaceful country.Their pride can be shown in two lines of a song that all Canadians hold dear: With glowing hearts we see thee rise; The True north strong and free.It is pride like this that makes us all Canadian,eh? Use the order calculator below and get started! Contact our live support team for any assistance or inquiry.Type of paper Patient education is crucial to improve quality of patient care, increase healthy behaviors and improve health status.Nursing and patient interaction plays a very important role, and part of a nurses job is to educate the patient (Ferguson et al.Educational programs such as nursing groups would be of great benefit to implement at Aurora Behavioral Health facility.

The following content will provide the purpose, target audience, benefits and more details on why implementing this programming will benefit this facility and improve quality of care.Purpose of Programming The main purpose of this programming is to improve patient health and slow down disease deterioration.This also gives the patients a chance to express some of their worries or concerns regarding the treatment or medication they are getting.This type of population already has a challenging time understanding their own condition and or state of mind, not all of them but most of them since they are mentally challenges due to their psychotic disorder.This programming also serves the purpose of nurses developing a therapeutic relationship with their patients, often times nurses will be able to pick up if there is a change in behavior, which can become a very important hint when related to a patient that is severely depressed.

Overall increased customer satisfaction is the end goal.Target Audience The target audiences are psychotic, depressed, and detoxing patients.With psychotic patients that are on multiple psychotropic medications it is important to constantly be educating on the side effects of the medication such as lithium and the importance of hydration.Behavioral health technicians would also benefit from this as well as they themselves canencourage patients to abide by these helpful hints reducing complications that can occur.Benefits of Programming An educated patient can participate in improvement of their own treatment helping improve outcomes or being capable of identifying errors before they occur ending in a shorter length of stay and a speedy recovery (Htnen et al.

For example a patient who has a good knowledge and understands what medications they are on and the times they are taken, will be able to catch a medication error perhaps by recognizing the pill itself and might realize and say I take that medication at night, not in the morning unfortunately we are humans and make mistakes.Individuals with poor mental health conditions often feel inferior, this nursing program will help them build more confidence and also allow one on one time with their nurse resulting in therapeutic relationship.Nurses will also have the benefit of becoming more familiar with his or her patients and recognize any changes in attitude or behavior.The only cost in this programming would be the time put into by the nurses.There has to be adequate staffing so the nurse is able to take the time to accomplish this daily task.There are only a few requirements perhaps having the nurse with the lower patient acuity do the nursing group.The cost would be minimal such as providing the patient with printed material for them to read as some of them learn better by reading.Evaluation Basis A nursing group would consist of thirty minutes to an hour dedicated to educate patients to touch base on important topics.

Some important topics consist of safety, medications and its side effects, warning signs of complications or basic topics such as hydration and nutrition.The nursing group will be done once a day preferably during the daytime shift when patients are alert and awake.There are two nurses per unit which consists of 20 beds, one nurse can do nursing group while the other remains at the nurses station attending to the rest of the patients that decided not to attend or couldnt for various reasons.The nursing supervisor isresponsible to making a file with numerous health related topics that would be targeted to this type of population.

If there is a chaotic busy day with more important priorities to where nurses dont have the time to teach nursing group, it can be cancelled and held until the next day.

Conclusion Patient education needs continuing emphasis in the healthcare systems and educational programs such as nursing group.This is crucial to patients in the experience of their illness and in the community.According to a study patients perceive structured and systematically conducted patient education programs very useful (Koivunen, et al.Informed patients can lessen changes of malpractice claims and improve and increase overall patient satisfaction.

This is a low cost effective program that will help achieve and meet patient satisfaction as it improves quality of patient care., Heather Ward, Sharon Card, Suzanne Sheppard, and Jane McMurtry.Putting the patient back into patient-centred care: An education perspective.

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CINAHL Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed September 29, 2014) Htnen, H.Patients perceptions of patient education on psychiatric inpatient wards: a qualitative study.

Journal Of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 17(4), 335-341 28 Mar 2011 - 110 ABJECTLY. 111 ABJURE. 112 ABJURED. 113 ABJURES. 114 ABJURING. 115 ABLATE. 116 ABLATED. 117 ABLATES. 118 ABLAZE. 119 ABLE   2607 ARTIST. 2608 ARTISTE. 2609 ARTISTIC. 2610 ARTISTICALLY. 2611 ARTISTRY. 2612 ARTISTS. 2613 ARTLESS. 2614 ARTS. 2615 ARTURO..Journal Of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 17(4), 335-341.

Nurses roles in systematic patient education sessions in psychiatric nursing.Journal Of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 19(6), 546-554 How to get a college writing services dissertation liberal arts privacy American PhD A4 (British/European) CBE.Journal Of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 19(6), 546-554.x Use the order calculator below and get started! Contact our live support team for any assistance or inquiry How to get a college writing services dissertation liberal arts privacy American PhD A4 (British/European) CBE.

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Type of paper Abstract Today in the era of competitiveness, learner seem to prefer their education based on what they could derive from it in their near future.No one gives it a choice that how could it be useful to the society and to the people around them-Everyone is looking for the survival in the society.The main objective of the learners are to earn monetary benefits from their education, when such a mindset is prevailing in the minds of the learner, then where are the values of VALUE ORIENTED EDUCATION ? In the present scenario everyone is walking on the trails left by someone , no one gives a thought of finding out their capabilities and deciding their road to success, which ultimately creates a havoc in ones life.This is clearly evident from the increasing rates of suicide in our society.

One of the very common factors responsible for this is over pressure on students to get the high marks in their exams.

It is for sure a very unhealthy and unethical competition.It is not only limited to a school level education, several suicide cases happen even at top level academic institutions worldwide here the race is for getting employment.Everywhere we see the learners are indulged in winning the races, in this dieu of time all have forgotten the basic objectives of our contemporary education.The contemporary system of education which stands on the pillars of social values, national values, ethical and aesthetic values like truth, goodness and beauty (Satyam , Shivam, Sundaram) are being eroded speedily.Therefore to delay the time of erosion we need to inculcate the value oriented education in our societies.

Value Oriented Education is highly needed in our modern society because our lives have become more miserable.The quantity of education has considerably increased, but the quality has decreased.It is so because the number of educated people has reached at a high level, but murder, hatred, and selfishness have spread out like wildfire everywhere.Institutions are opening day by day, but only few civilized people are produced.It is so because the Degrees are available for all, but the dignity has gone down.

Therefore, we need Value Oriented Education which will not only improve the status of the society but also enhance the life of the learners.The central task of education is to implant a will and facility for learning; it should produce not learned but learning people.The truly human society is a learning society, where grandparents, parents, and children are students together.Eric Hoffer Use the order calculator below and get started! Contact our live support team for any assistance or inquiry.Type of paper 1) How have changes relating to management and organisational structural affected a global organisation of your choice, over the last 75 years.

Relate your findings to growth, distribution, and various external influences and strategies.2) Undertake a SWOT analysis and explain its relevance in relation to your company and/or its sector Word Count 1250.Global organisation Laura Ashley Holdings Plc has suffered differing fortunes since Bernard and Laura Ashley founded it in the 1950s.

It has been involved in the designing, manufacturing, distribution and selling of garments, accessories, perfume, gift items, fabric, wall coverings, bedding, lighting, and furniture.Famed for its floral prints, the chain was highly successful during the early and mid 1980s but things changed in the early 1990s when various management and structural problems as well as those relating to growth, distribution, and various external influences such as global recession surfaced Laura Ashley herself died in 1985.There is a notable difference in the organisation up to and after this year.Up to 1985, it was a simply structured, steadily expanding organisation operating in a non-complex environment (complexity arises when there are numerous complicated environmental influences Johnson and Scholes, 1989 ).In the months and years after, many changes took place.

Laura Ashley went public in flotation, acquired other companies involved in areas such as knitwear and perfume, made heavier investments in manufacturing and information technology (IT), moved towards segmentation with Mother and Child shops, exclusively home furnishing shops and unit shops (franchise operations).The organisation moved gradually away from vertical integration (it had always manufactured and delivered all goods itself) The Guardian reported that Laura Ashley was withdrawing from manufacturing by the end of the year in 1998.In order to facilitate growth, there was a shift from the simple functional organisational structure to a more complex divisional structure (which wasre-organised with every change of leadership).The most notable chief executives of Laura Ashley who were in place whilst and after problems developed were Jim Maxmin (1991-1994) and Ann Iverson (1995-1997).Each of these people were responsible for major overhauls within the organisation.

Vora (1998) states, Laura Ashley has undergone various restructuring strategies and umpteen management upheavals, all to no avail, and all of which have decimated shareholder value and abused the brand name.As highlighted above, the major problems of Laura Ashley began to manifest in the late 1980s and early 1990s.The first fall of profits were reported in the year to January 1989.It is important, then, to look at its success before this from its beginnings in the 1950s to 1985.One area to naturally consider is the key success factors of the organisation for this period i.

what specifically can its success is attributed to.Key success factors are what an organisation must do well in order to be successful, be an effective competitor and satisfy stakeholder requirements (Thompson, 1997).Bearing this in mind, the key success factors of Laura Ashley up to 1985 are identified as high quality production, innovative designs, good brand management (the Laura Ashley name was and is strong), well placing of stores, creation of good atmospheres in stores, general design and creative competencies, staff training, creation of a vertically integrated structure and operation within a simplistic organisational structure in general.Also, the Groups IT capabilities factored into the success as it was a source of competitive advantage e.

they were an early adopter of electronic point of sale (Heath, 1996 as cited by Johnson and Scholes, 1999).These factors may also be interpreted as strategic excellence positions (SEPs), which can be described as the capabilities, which allow an organisation to produce better than average results in comparison with competitors (PUmpin, 1987).Thompson (1997) presents a particularly useful model that can be helpful in explaining the success of Laura Ashley up to 1985.The EVR congruence model, by Thompson, considers if an organisation is being managed effectively with regards to strategy.

It represents the matching of an organisations resources (for Laura Ashley these would include plants, vehicles, IT systemsand locations) to the key success factors dictated by the environment (external factors such as opportunities and threats, stakeholders, competition etc).A determinant in matching these is the values of the organisation (again, in the case of Laura Ashley, these would include the lifestyle they promote/project, shop designs and atmospheres, product designs, the brand, staff training policy and the family culture).If the congruence (fit) between these three areas is great, then this indicates effective management of resources (Hamel and Prahalad 1993 comment that it is important for organisations to manage resources well in order to achieve objectives), strategy formulation and all-round success.It can be argued that the success of Laura Ashley up to 1985 can be attributed to greater EVR congruence.

That is such things as the number of shops and plants, distribution systems, stakeholders, threats (including competition), products, level of vertical integration and so on fit together well in relation to the size, structure, culture and speed of growth of the organisation then.

The key success factors are also indicative of this congruence.So that they can be developed to help ensure both present and future success, it is important key success factors are recognised and understood.One particular way Laura Ashley could do this is through a SWOT analysis.This reviews an organisations internal strengths and weaknesses and opportunities and threats in the external environment (Cole, 1996).This may be done for a particular moment in time or as an overview encompassing the past and present.

As made clear, Laura Ashley has faced much change during its existence.

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Opportunities and threats come about as a result of constant change and the SWOT analysis can help to identify these and internal strengths and weaknesses relevant when dealing with change (Johnson and Scholes, 1989).This SWOT analysis can be used in relation to analysing the problems faced by Laura Ashley in the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s.They can be greatly attributed to the weaknesses and threats identified Need to buy liberal arts dissertation Formatting Standard Business 3 hours.They can be greatly attributed to the weaknesses and threats identified.

For example, fluctuations in the economy had a knock-on effect on the sale of property and hence on the sale of household furnishings.

Also, high borrowing, wastage and forced discounting meant that, despite sales increases, shops were making a loss 12 Sep 2012 - http://antiedmedicine.com/ buy viagra in usa 53129 http://www.feihouse.com/ cheap car insurance quotes 545327   essays for purchase Connor, 26, is among a growing number of people  .Also, high borrowing, wastage and forced discounting meant that, despite sales increases, shops were making a loss.The reorganisations in 1988, 1991 and twice in 1995 had their effect too they were costly and highlighted inefficiency.Chandler (1977) states that structures are not adapted until pressure of inefficiency forces the change and that this change process is usually a painful one often carried out by a different chief executive each time.Upon and after his appointment in 1991, Jim Maxmin found that the organisation lacked a core identity, clear strategies, empowered staff, thorough market research, efficient logistics, and many problems in the US such as limited growth, poor management and delivery problems.He responded with his Simplify, Focus and Act programme.

This included reorganisation, institution of a Global Operations Executive (GOE) and Global Collection Development (GCD) which aided globalisation and marketing, encouragement to empower staff, an alliance with Federal Express Business Logistics to improve delivery and distribution systems, sourcing half of the organisations manufacturing tothe Far East (rather than in-house in Britain) and management replacement in the US.Before leaving Laura Ashley in 1994, Jim Maxmin commented that throughout the entire organisation, people has embraced the principles of the Simplify, Focus and Act programme and set about sorting out the operational problems which have plagued Laura Ashley (Maxmin, 1993 as cited by Warnaby, 1994).Ann Iverson was appointed chief executive of Laura Ashley in 1995.She was to spearhead the rush into the US and revamp the product range (Teather, 1999).Her observations found various problems all of which can again be attributed to identified weaknesses.

It was found that the product range was too broad, there was no unified look to match globalisation, the supply chain was inefficient and problems continued in the US.Ann Iversons response included strengthening the alliance with Federal Express Business Logistics, opening larger stores in the US and reviewing marketing and sales.These changes were considered to be good as Laura Ashley restored dividend payments in 1996 for the first time since 1989.Ann Iverson was dismissed in 1997, however, mainly due to continuing problems in the US and the organisations image (Keynotes, 1997).Each of the changes mentioned came about from the organisations particular strengths (as identified) at the time.

For example, whilst such things as restructuring and shop closures were happening, the strong name of Laura Ashley and strong customer loyalty were greatly relied upon.Bowman and Asch (1987) comment that the strengths of an organisation are a if not the determinant in how it handles weaknesses, opportunities and threats.Opportunities open to the organisation in dealing with its various problems can be identified as the opportunities in the SWOT analysis.Opportunities change and differ over time.For example, the alliance with Federal Express Business Logistics resulted from available opportunities at the time.

A possible opportunity in the early 1990s would have been a speedier move away from vertical integration for example.Laura Ashley became totally vertically integrated in the 1970s and continuedto be so though gradually moved away from this in the 1990s completely in 1998.Vertical integration can be backwards e.manufacturer purchasing/owning supplier and forwards e.

manufacturer purchasing/owning retailer Laura Ashley was both backwardly and forwardly vertically integrated everything from the supplying of materials and manufacturing to distribution and retail.The main benefits of this throughout the organisations development included greater control, greater ability to differentiate, the opportunity to achieve economies of scale (higher margins), assurance of supply and greater synergy.Despite this, there were numerous disadvantages particularly that it was costly and greatly increased operational leverage as well as the need to keep up with technological change.This tied up capital having long-term affects.

It meant that there was not full concentration of key strengths (design and retail) on which key success factors are dependent (Thompson, 1997).Furthermore, vertical integration was inflexible (cheaper manufacturers could not be sourced) and sensitivity to decreases in sales increased.It was the cost aspect that had the greatest impact particularly in the face of costly expansion (especially in the US).Warnaby (1994) comments that vertical integration was responsible for financial problems in the early 1990s.The costs of vertical integration had an impact on the organisations ability to successfully expand internationally.

Perhaps with the exception of a distinctive product look and the adoption of a divisional structure, Laura Ashley did not expand internationally applying Treadgolds keys/strategies each was applied/introduced incrementally as problems arose to highlight the need e.it was not until 1995 when Ann Iverson felt the need for a unified product look.This is indicative that the organisation was not particularly capable of embarking on such ambitious international expansion as it did.

This is highlighted by the numerous problems faced by the organisation e.

poor marketing/marketing strategy, inefficient logistics and lack of direction and clear strategy.Additionally, the paternalistic management style was not suited to rapid expansion and this coupled with high finance demands from vertical integration, reorganisation and early acquisitions further indicate poor planning in terms of development Laura Ashley has faced so many problems throughout its existence.Problems owing to management, organisational structure, logistics and rapid international expansion continuously came and went.In 1998 bankruptcy looked imminent but an injection of ?44 million in equity capital by Malaysian businessman Dr Kay Peng Khoo (giving his MUI property company 47.

5% share ownership whilst the Ashley family retained just 9% Gibbs, 1999 ).He installed Ng Kwan Cheong as chief executive who made changes including the disposal of the problematic North American franchise (retail operations were sold to a management buyout team for $1 at the end of July, 1999 Gibbs, 1999 ), targeting of younger markets and investment in e-commerce (Abdullah, 2000).However, all of these changes looked to have no major impact in the Groups success with sales steadily decreasing from 1998.Whether or not Laura Ashley manages to achieve the sort of success it enjoyed in the early 1980s under its new management remains to be seen as does its survival.Chief Executive Ng Kwan Cheong refrained from placing false hopes, commenting in March of 2000 We have a lot of things to do.

All I can say is we are moving in the right direction and things are changing (Cheong, 2000 as cited by Abdullah, 2000).The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business.

Management Theory and Practice (5th Edition).

Exploring Corporate Strategy: Text and Cases.

Exploring Corporate Strategy: Text and Cases (5th Edition).

Strategic Management: Awareness and Change.Harvard Business Review, 71, March-April, pp75-84.Keynotes (1997), Keynote Market Report Clothing Retailing, 1997 Reports, p23.(1991) Dixons and Laura Ashley: Different Routes to International Growth.International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management.

Laura Ashley An International Retail Brand.

(1999) Laura Ashley bids farewell The Guardian Unlimited Archive./Archive/Article/0,4273,3904775, (18 December 2000).

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(1999) Banks push Laura Ashley to quit US The Guardian Unlimited Archive.

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(1994) Strategy Process, Content, Context: An International Perspective.The Business and Marketing Environment (2nd Edition).(1980) Competitive Strategy Techniques for Analysing Industries and Competition 11 Jan 2016 - Order Details/Description highlight the correct answer The model of representation most widely used today is the trustee model. conscience model. politico   upheld 75 as the maximum age for U.S. senators. overturned state laws that attempted to limit the number of terms that members of Congress could  .(1980) Competitive Strategy Techniques for Analysing Industries and Competition.(1985) Competitive Advantage Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance .

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Laura Ashley The History / (20 December 2000) .Laura Ashley The History / (20 December 2000).(1997) Laura Ashley closure a strategic decision.Daily Yale News Online Friday, 12 September 1997, (online) (cited 20 December 2000).Laura Ashley Holdings Plc Company Capsule Companies and Industries /uk?capsule/5/0,3042,90245, ?referer= (20 December 2000).Laura Ashley Holdings Plc Company Profiles.Research Report: Laura Ashley Holdings Plc Corporate Information /profiles/scripts/ ?cusip=C826EG930 (18 December 2000).Use the order calculator below and get started! Contact our live support team for any assistance or inquiry.

Type of paper I will be writing my research paper on police subculture and how the affects of police subculture impact the body of the law and how it relates to crime.Police subculture is an array of standard procedures and values that rule law enforcers activates in relation to their contractual responsibilities.Police officers were ranked the fifth most stressful job in the world.Since police work is very stressful, police officers have to deal with many hostile individuals in the public and therefore they need to defined styles to handle these unique scenarios.What I will be talking about in my paper is since police subculture is so different such as their values, and beliefs police share which sets them apart from other members of society.

Overall I will be talking about the beliefs of police subculture psychological cause of police subculture, changing police subculture and how police subculture affects our society.Police officers are people the society normally looks up to as epitomes of discipline and protectors of law and order; however police behavior in recent years has been anything but flawless with that being said there is a rise in the resentment and distrust in the public.The public no longer trusts or respects police officers imposing all sorts of changes against them.Police behavior is indeed hateful in some cases especially where minorities or women are concerned.When we dig deeper into the anthropological and psychological cause of this kind of behavior, we notice that police are influenced by a flawed subculture that profound affects the attitude and behavior of most police officers.

With that being said this subculture teaches them certain values and beliefs and on the other, it turns the entire police community into a cohesive group meaning causing cohesion that is essentially alienated from the general public.According to Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (1994) police subculture is a set of norms and values that govern police behavior, brought about by stressful working conditions plus daily interaction with an often hostile public.Police subculture is responsible for giving offers a unique working attitude and mindset.Their character and personality is profoundly altered by the vies and values that they learn from existing in this subculture.The one most important thing we notice about this subculture is the idea of insiders and outsiders that lies at the core of all its values.

Police officers are constantly reminded of their role as protectors of peace and order which turns them against the general public as they view everyone outside the police department as a potential criminal or suspect.Police subculture is also essentially characterized by violence as researched indicates that, Many officers are exposed to a subculture of violence in which they encounter death almost daily.The average citizen generally does not witness in a lifetime the amount of death and violence a police officer experiences in one month.James Fyfe, a very well known figure in the world of law education and law enforcement indentified some key issues regarding police sudbulture during a police conference in April 1992.

He believed that characteristics of the police subculture may be responsible for some of the apparent increase in the frequency of police compkaints.He stated that many police officers feel they are soldiers in the war on crime.Fyfe said that this is a war they cannot win, and the realization of this leads to frustration and anger.(Eric Jackso,1992) Police officers are severely affected by the values that this subculture promotes and endorses.

For instance, police officers are usually alienated from the general society which puts them at a greater risk of being vulnerable to police subculture.

This is because they are regularly reminded of the insider/outsider principle meaning giving rise to certain degree of separation from the public.This separation starts expanding with the passage of time until police officers cannot longer relate to the common society this results in deeper association with police subculture, which ultimately shapes their perspective on others.Another reason they cannot relate to the public is because of the accusations that are imposed against them.The public usually treats then with disgust and disrespect, holding them responsible for corruption and plagues police departments and forgeneral lawlessness in the society.Fr this reason, police officers seeks validation from other police personnel, which makes the inner subculture more effective and powerful.

(Christopher Cooper,2000) Violanti(1995) explains: The roots of frustration emanate from the central irony of American policing: Society charges police officers with the task of regulation a public that does not want to be regulated.For individual officers, the resulting frustration is exacerbated by a largely unsympathetic press, a lack of community support, and a criminal justice system that values equity over expediency.A sense of societal isolation often ensues, compelling officers to together in a defensive stance.While this occupational subculture should have been a source of inspiration, it is actually despised by many including some police officers themselves alter they realize how it damaged their vision and personality.Most police officers are racial biased as recent incidents of police brutality indicate.

This is because of women and minorities are seen as weaker groups and when they refused to obey police commands, police officers see it as a direct attack on their authority.This attitude has given rise to some serious cause of police brutality against citizens and one such case was that of Thomas Jones of Philadelphia.S Marine and police officer Christopher Cooper (2000) linked these kind of cases to police subculture saying Sadly, in our early tenure as cops, we instructed on the code of the police subculture.These are norms that are almost always perverse.

Two such norms were operable in the Jones mob attack.The first was if a citizen runs from one of us, we are to beat him severely.Another is that if a citizen physically hurts one of use, we are to hurt that citizen even more before we bring him to the station.And if that citizen has killed a cop, he shouldnt make it to the station alive.The marcho-ism that characterizes police culture is also responsible for cases of domestic violence where police officers were charged for hitting their wives and using force to extract obedience.

This is indeed a highly disturbing situation, ehich is posing serious threat that happiness of households where one spouse is in the police department.It has been noticedthat when many police officers are domestic abusers even though they may not define their behavior in these terms.Apart from women and minorities, gay men also face serious prejudice especially if they join the police force.Kirschman(1997) writes: As with women, gay men are presumed to lack such manlu attributes as courage, bravery, and loyalty.And like women, when they demonstrate courage and competence, they threaten the notion that only manly men can do police work.

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Type of paper 1 What, if anything, could Kassam have done to prevent the current situation? It is really tough to say if Kassam had any chance in preventing the current situation while in Canada.Kassam broke the rules and emailed Singh, the project manager, directly, even though he knows about the high power distance that is incorporated in Matthew corporate culture.But it paid off and he was assigned the job 26 May 2005 - As a special service  Fossies  has tried to format the requested text file into HTML format (style: standard) with prefixed line numbers.   airsick/P 108 airtime 109 airway/MS 110 ajar 111 alabaster/SM 112 Alamo/S 113 alanine/M 114 Alaric/M 115 alarm/3DGkS 116 albacore/SM 117 albedo/M 118 albeit 119  .But it paid off and he was assigned the job.

We could push the envelope and say that Kassam could have asked Singh for further directions and a brief of the situation and the current status of the job at hand, but that would be highly unorthodox of Kassam.

Usually consultants are expected to learn along the way and accommodate quickly to new tasks, as complex as they might be Sitemap Get professional essay writing help on our website at a good nbsp.Usually consultants are expected to learn along the way and accommodate quickly to new tasks, as complex as they might be.In Abu Dhabi, one week into the case, the circumstances were very unfavorable Sitemap Get professional essay writing help on our website at a good nbsp.In Abu Dhabi, one week into the case, the circumstances were very unfavorable.Already a matrix of problems is installed and Kassam arrived to an unwelcoming ground.Problems started with the expectations and deception of the clients management team and do not end with how his own management team is handling the situation.Basically the client was promised an experienced team of consultants, and instead received younger less experienced ones.

That made them disgruntled and consequently built tremendous pressure on Matthewss leadership team, putting the job in jeopardy and making them worry for the outcome because a lot is at stake, especially for Mahfouz, whos planning to become partner in the region.The young inexperienced consultants were the source of the problem which made Kassam also a part of it.Arriving to Abu Dhabi, Kassam could have investigated the situation more thoroughly.He could have made more efforts to get to know his new peers and pillars, the office culture, and made a better assessment about how the job is proceeding.He surely wont be doing it directly; he wont have the time or the opportunity.

However, he could have kept an open eye of everything happening around him, picking up signals and asking questions when he had opportunities to do so, in order to formulate a better understanding of his new environment.That could have made him realize earlier that his presence is being perceived as part of the problem, and gave him the opportunity to change things around so hell be perceived as part of the solution and as a valuable member of the consultingteam.Kassams understanding of the halo effect that Mahfouz has on him, influenced by the client, is critical to have at an early stage to prevent the current situation.Kassam, and after the first alarming incident, could have approached Mahfouz to engage in strait talk.Kassam has to explain that hes willing to give his best to meet objectives and even though he just joined the team, he has valuable experience and will try to make the most of it to help.

Kassam can also ask to have his work assignments and tasks more clarified to avoid any possible mistakes as a result of misunderstanding, and that is in accordance with the path goal theory where the leader helps the follower identify good practice that will lead him to success.After this conversation Mahfouz could take things a little lighter, rising in confidence and trust, knowing that he has full support from his subordinate.2 Considering his background and his long-term and short-term goals, is consulting the right career for Kassam? Kassam is a bright young MBA candidate that even at his young age has built valuable expertise.Kassam is also much focused and career driven, he is multilingual and had experiences in different cultures.

His dream is to be the boss of his own company one day, and is targeting to work as a management consultant to solidify his abilities and better prepare for his future endeavor.

Kassam worked hard to get into the internship program at Matthews, a top tiers global consulting firm.He showed great competence, high qualification levels, and persistence to secure it.The internship in Matthews will give Kassam a chance to get a full time employment offer.The consulting industry will give Kassam the opportunity to apply what he learned in his MBA and build expertise in a high intensity, high stakes, high expectations environment that is demanding both intellectually and physically.On the job Kassam will be exposed to big players from various industries that will increase his learning curve exponentially in a relatively small amount of time.

As a consultant Kassam will have unique learning experiences that will reinforce and grow his skills, not only from his personal work but also from his interactions with his high caliber peers and pillars.He will be working with bright people on big project, and getting good pay for his services.On his assignment in Abu Dhabi, Kassamdream was turning into a nightmare.He was getting yelled at for doing mistakes and was affected by the general negative working environment that was lurking in Matthews Abu Dhabi office.Kassam was starting to lose confidence and feared of losing his opportunity to secure the job.

Kassam needs to boost his moral and try to find a way to fix his situation because a lot is at stake.He will jeopardize his career opportunity if things continue to downfall, and hence his plan will be compromised, because he knows that he needs consulting experience to start his company strong.Kassam needs to grow thicker skin, stop complaining about his misfortune and figure out a way to survive the situation and even make it favorable.Bosses come and go, but careers last a life time which is what he should be telling himself.When someone is pursuing a career in a rewarding industry such as management consulting, stress level sore and expectations are second to none, and Kassam should start to consider his misfortunes as part of the game.

3- As Kassam, what would you do now? Why? How? As Kassam, I would be really confident in my abilities and qualifications to do a proper job, even as an intern.Ill maintain self confidence and stick to my plan to pursue a career in consulting that would solidify my learning and prepare me to become a successful entrepreneur.Kassam failed to meet the expectations of his direct boss, even though the mistakes were not major and was trying his best.After thorough investigations, it appears that the problems that he is facing are rooted elsewhere, and Mahfouz, his direct boss, is having a lot of pressure from the clients management team.They were promised experienced consultants to be working on their project and after closing the deal, young inexperienced colleagues, Kassam, ended up on the team.

Mahfouz is responding negatively to everything Kassam is doing, suffering from a sort of halo effect that the client is having on him and consequently he is having on Kassam.He perceives Kassams presence on his team as a problem and consequently assesses his work in a negative way.To break the vicious circle of negativity, I should focus on improving the general problematic issue, and that is to try to change the perception of the client.I know that the clients management team was mainly composed byex-consultants and would definitely appreciate good work even if it comes from a novice.They are result and achievement driven, and that is probably the reason they chose Mathews in the first place.

So they wont be as concerned by the age and the expertise level of the consultants once good progress is shown and expectations met.But first I have to demonstrate leadership and initiative, like Kassam once did with Singh to secure the job.I have to talk to Mahfouz to tell him more about my views and try to change his perception.I would meet with Mahfouz and tell him: I probably have to work extra hard to fill the shoes of an experienced consultant.The analogy goes by: if I look like a duck, quack like a duck, probably Im a duck.

So to be able to hang with the eagles, I would have to work extra hard for you.I just need you trust and support and I promise you my absolute best.Mahfouz will probably receive my initiative positively, and appreciate my concern and passion for the job.It will make him look at things from another perspective; with all his team members fully engaged, he will see that they are his best chance to achieve a job well done.Thus Mahfouz can build confidence out of his team and confront the client with the right plans and numbers.

And even though the problematic issue of the team expertise level that he is facing with the client will still be there, he will believe in his ability to reverse the tides by delivering the right results.Mahfouz will be shifting his focus from the outer group problems, to the inter group productivity, and hence make him a better leader for his followers.Use the order calculator below and get started! Contact our live support team for any assistance or inquiry.Type of paper The Middle Class Blacks Burden Leanita McClain, an African American journalist, was greatly acknowledge as a black African American middle class success.

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McClain was condemned by her own peers and was pated on the head by whites who believed her success was only based on talent than affirmative action .

Due to prejudice whites and berate blacks, Leanita was forced to choose between the envy of her own race or for her own amentities.In McClains essay, The Middle Class Blacks Burden, She uses percise Rhetorical Strategies to express her burden Where to purchase a liberal arts dissertation 12 pages / 3300 words Junior US Letter Size double spaced.In McClains essay, The Middle Class Blacks Burden, She uses percise Rhetorical Strategies to express her burden.

Those strategies are Compare/Contrast, Authors Tone, and Logical Appeal.McClain uses the rhetorical strategy of compare/contrast to depict her burden .McClain uses the rhetorical strategy of compare/contrast to depict her burden.McClain compared her lifstyle of her childhood to her success as a middle class black woman .

McClain compared her lifstyle of her childhood to her success as a middle class black woman.

Leanita was castigated by her peers simply because they felt she sold out her nation to work as a middle class african american.Others felt that she forgot where she came and that she characterized herself as white instead of black.In her essay she stated , It is impossible for me to forget where I came from as long as I am prey to the jiv hustler who does not hesitate to exploit my childhood friendship.With blacks passing judgements, a heavy burden was placed on the back of Leanita.

This Rhetorical Strategy was very effective because it helps the reader understand how her life as a lower class affected how her life was as a middle class.

The second Rherorical Strategy McClain uses to express her burden was tone.McClains tone throughtout essay is depressed and confused.Part of the tone is confused becuase McClain doesnt know if she should stand aside her nation or pursue her career in the middle class.It also shows depression because both sides are nagging at her and making her feel as if shes unwanted from both.In her essay it she states, I have a foot in each world, but I cannot fool myself about either.

I can see the transparent deceptions ofsome whites and the bitter hoplessness of some blacks.This rhetorical strategy was effective because it displays how the authors depression she felt througout her life.The last Rhetorical strategy McClain uses to depict her burden was Logical Appeal.All three were used for the reader to understand why she feel shes torn between two worlds.In her essay McClain mostly uses ethos and pathos to explain her burden.

Being an african american journalist in chicago, made her appeal as a figure that people would consider.However, judgements from blacks made her feel indifferent.In Mclains essay, My Turn, she states, Some of my liberal white acquaintances pat me on the head, hinting that I am a freak, , I may live among them, but it is difficult to live with them.This personify her chose of rhetorical strategies.This strategy is effective because it helps the reader percieve the choice of words the authors uses.

Conclusively, McClains rhetorical strategies not only help the reader, but displayed her appeal as a middle class black woman.The Rhetorical strategies that Leanita used were proven to be effective and impacted the theme of the passage.Use the order calculator below and get started! Contact our live support team for any assistance or inquiry.Type of paper The development of individuals can be affected by a number of life factors which include genetic, biological, environmental, socio economic and lifestyle factors.All these life factors have a large variety of influences which will affect individuals and how they develop through the life stages.

The first life factor is the genetics of an individual, a genetic influence which could affect the development of someone could be the predisposition to a particular disease such as Down syndrome.This particular disease is a chromosomal disorder and a genetic condition that typically causes some level of learning disability and a characteristic difference in physical features.These typical difficulties which are involved with this disorder affect the everyday life of the individual.With this disorder causing some level of learning disability, this will affect the way the child develops as a young person in regards to their education.This particular condition leads to much impairment in both the cognitive ability of the individual and also the physical growth too.

Individuals with Down syndrome can have many different abnormalities which can affect their general health and bodily function.People with the condition have increased risk of gaining respiratory and hearing problems and epilepsy.With all these increased risks being involved with this condition, it shows in many ways how the condition can affect how individuals develop throughout their life.Their childhood will be difficult due to the teaching they will have, this will therefore affect their adulthood as they wont have the same life knowledge as other adults.Their adolescence will be different and more difficult for them as they wont have the same life as a teenager would in regards to developing the relationship side of life and beginning to explore their body in ways young adults do as changes begin.

The long term outlook for an individual with Down syndrome is seen unlikely to be long.This particular condition is seen to slow the individual down and the health problems along with the condition jeopardize their life.This therefore affects thedevelopment through the older adulthood life stage as they may not get to this age to experience this.The next life factor is biological influences that can affect the overall development of an individual as they go through all their life stages.Foetal alcohol syndrome is a biologic condition which can affect the development of a person from the minute they are conceived within the womb.

This particular syndrome is a pattern of mental and physical defects that can develop a fetus in association with high levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy.This particular condition can stunt the fetal growth or their weight which therefore affects the development of a child into adulthood as they have a stunt of growth.The consumption of alcohol whilst pregnant can damage neurons and the brain structures of the fetus.This therefore affects how the infant develops once born and can reduce the time it takes for the child to learn how to walk and talk.Fetal alcohol syndrome can create a collection of primary cognitive and functional disabilities, some of these including poor memory, attention deficits and impulsive behaviour.

These disabilities can affect the childhood development as the schooling of the individual can become increasingly difficult and take longer, and as a result of trouble with learning at a young age it can affect the way the development throughout the other life stages occurs.As well as the disabilities that can occur above, there are secondary disabilities which can affect the development of a person.Examples of these are mental health problems and drug and alcohol addiction which can affect the development of adulthood as you dont get to experience having a family and relationships as drug and alcohol addiction will affect the way you live and also your bodily functions which may decrease the chances of having a family.The appearance of you may also affect your older adulthood as the misuse of alcohol and drugs during your life can make you look older than you and also the long term illnesses may affect your chances of living longer.Access to employment and income is a potential influence of an environmental factor which can affect the development of people.

Individuals who do not have enough income to look after themselves let alone their children stillinsist on having children.This however is a downfall in todays society as it leaves an increased possibility for difficulty in family life.No employment leads to no income in a family home, this can affect the way an infant is brought up in regards to being looked after and being fed.It may also lead to infants being put in care as parents cant look after them properly and ably which already leaves room for the development of the child to be decreased due to them not having the care from their own parents at a young age.

No employment or income can also affect childhood as this is the start of education, with no income families cant afford to send their child to school and pay for their lunches or their essentials they may need for educational purposes.

With no income it can also affect the way the child is treated at school, they may become a bullied individual as they may not have what other children may have.Adults who live a life with no employment and income can result in depression; this then leads to poor mental health and low self esteem which is the belief that you are inferior to others.

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Depression and stress can cause a poor diet and also for individuals not to take care of themselves like they should which will result in a lower expectancy of life for older adulthood.Another life factor is socio economic which could include the education of people.Individuals with few or no qualifications which they should have attained at childhood and adolescence from going to school and higher education are more likely to be unemployed or employed in low paid work How to write an dissertation liberal arts 78 pages / 21450 words 1 hour Chicago College Freshman.

Individuals with few or no qualifications which they should have attained at childhood and adolescence from going to school and higher education are more likely to be unemployed or employed in low paid work.

It is said that the education of individuals at childhood depends on the family they grow up in.As families with higher incomes than average usually get better paid jobs than those who live in families with low incomes Sitemap Get high quality writing assistance from us at a good price nbsp.As families with higher incomes than average usually get better paid jobs than those who live in families with low incomes.It also depends on the encouragement you get as a child and adolescence to whether you do well in education Sitemap Get high quality writing assistance from us at a good price nbsp.It also depends on the encouragement you get as a child and adolescence to whether you do well in education.Peer pressure is also a tough thing to overcome at adolescence which can interfere with the grades you attain within education.Those who dont get the qualifications they want usually find adulthood to be difficult as they dont have the income they would like for them to have a nice house and big family consumer science.

Those who dont get the qualifications they want usually find adulthood to be difficult as they dont have the income they would like for them to have a nice house and big family.

This links in with no income or employment and again results in the likelihood of older adulthood to be lower in life expectancy due to not being able to afford a healthy lifestyle due to the failing of not attaining the qualifications within education.Lastly is the lifestyle of an individual which can affect the development of them throughout their life stages.A particular lifestyle influence could be nutrition and dietary choices individuals all make.Many people may choose to eat a diet that includes unhealthy fatty, salty or sugary foods.Other people may eat unhealthy foods because of convenience and cost.

People with low income will find it harder to travel to supermarkets and stock up on cheaper food.Low income may also push people to choose an unhealthy diet because it can be harder and more expensive to choose a healthy one.This however will cause problems for individuals in the long run.If families have a poor income and therefore dont choose a healthy diet for their families it results in children having poor diets which can affect the growth development of them as individuals.But also affect the brain and how it functions which can affect the childs education.

Other families might choose to give their children what they need in regards to nutrition and dietary choices, but not themselves which can cause people becoming obese and therefore affecting their lifestyle and development.If people become obese they usually become lazy and therefore dont keep healthy and fit, this can affect the lifestyle of older adulthood as unfit and unhealthy elderly people can result in younger life expectancy as illnesses might take over elderly individuals.Overall it is clearly seen that there are many life factors that can influence the development of individuals and also the life expectancy of these individuals also.This is why it is important to have healthy lifestyles and to do the best you can throughout life to get the best out of it.Use the order calculator below and get started! Contact our live support team for any assistance or inquiry.

Type of paper EURTotal: Introduction: For this assignment I am going to explain one of the 7Ps.In this case I am going to describe people for my chosen company, DELL.A board of directors of nine people runs the company.Michael Dell, the founder of the company, serves as chairman of the board and chief executive officer.Other board members include Don Carty, William Gray, Judy Lewent, Klaus Luft, Alex Mandl, Michael A.

Shareholders elect the nine board members at meetings, and those board members who do not get a majority of votes must submit a resignation to the board, which will subsequently choose whether or not to accept the resignation.The board of directors usually sets up five committees having oversight over specific matters.These committees include the Audit Committee, which handles accounting issues, including auditing and reporting; the Compensation Committee, which approves compensation for the CEO and other employees of the company; the Finance Committee, which handles financial matters such as proposed mergers and acquisitions; the Governance and Nominating Committee, which handles various corporate matters (including nomination of the board); and the Antitrust Compliance Committee, which attempts to prevent company practices from violating antitrust laws.The corporate structure and management of Dell extends beyond the board of directors.

The Dell Global Executive Management Committee sets strategic directions.Dell has regional senior vice-presidents for countries other than the United States, including David Marmonti for EMEA and Stephen J.As of 2007 update , other officers included Martin Garvin (senior vice president for worldwide procurement) and Susan E.Sheskey (vice president and Chief Information Officer).

Conclusion: DELL has got a huge inside organisation with a lot of employees and managers.Use the order calculator below and get started! Contact our live support team for any assistance or inquiry.Type of paper Abstract Teams are a significant tool for promoting and managing change.There are shared definitions of teamwork in the literature, and agreement on general benefits and limitations of working in teams.However, the historical development of teamwork differs between health care and the business environments of manufacturing and service industries.

The impact of the organisational context on teamwork appears to differ most, when literature from the two environments is compared.As a result, there are specific issues that are unique to the development and implementation of health care teams.This article summarises the unique team structures and the issue of professionalisation in health care teams, while recommending that team members acknowledge their professional differences and focus foremost on meeting patient needs.Introduction Currently, quality health care depends on a wide range of skilled professionals collaborating effectively together.

Health care professionals need to continually improve the quality and efficiency of patient services in an environment of constant change.

Real improvement requires change of the systems in which health care is delivered.Highly skilled clinicians require appropriate and well-designed organisational structures to deliver the best quality care (Klein 1998).Systems change is often perceived as threatening to the status quo, and must therefore be carefully managed to achieve optimum outcomes.Teamwork has become an essential tool of quality management, which links efficient organisational practice with high-quality patient care.Teams are one of the most effective ways of integrating individual patient concernswith the bigger organisational perspective, while maximising the diversity of the health care workforce.

Therefore, 179 Australian Health Review Vol 23 No 1 2000 teams are important in both managing and promoting change.However the ability to work as part of a team within a complex health care organisationis much talked about but little studied (Buchan 1998, p S66).Effective teams have been promoted as an important means of enhancing organisational performance in business management.Often, literature from the business environments of service and manufacturing industry is generalised to health care without taking account of the differences between the organisations.Jayasuria and Sim (1998) who studied strategic planning, advised against extrapolating findings from business to health care.

They highlighted the uniqueness of the variety of health care output indicators (as opposed to business profits and growth), the divergent group of stakeholders (trustees, management, government) and the professional hierarchies.This article will compare the development of teams in both business and health care literature to emphasise the instrumental role of the organisational context in shaping health care teams.A consensual definition of teamwork will be offered.Further, a discussion of the benefits and obstacles to teamwork will be discussed broadly before the implications for health care environments are highlighted.Historical context The importance of knowledge and service industries has increased in response to a continuing technology and information explosion.

The information technology infrastructure has assumed many traditional managerial roles and functions.Therefore, organisations are moving towards flatter and more participative management structures where workers receive sufficient information to make effective decisions about their work (West 1994).

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Task complexity has increased and challenged traditional methods of workspecialisation as more information has become available to each worker (Sundstrom, De Meuse & Futrell 1990).Organisations have enhanced their customer focus to become more responsive within competitive and deregulated markets where there are scarce resources (Syer & Connolly 1996).For these emerging organisations to work well, enhanced communication systems have been required for responsible interdependent decision-making Crossover Spalding.

For these emerging organisations to work well, enhanced communication systems have been required for responsible interdependent decision-making.

Generally, teams have accommodated different perspectives and generated workable solutions (Wenzel 1995).Teams have also responded quickly to customer needs and facilitated organisational change (Fanning 1997).As a result, there are increasing recommendations for effective teamwork in most organisations (Lawler 1993; Syer & Connolly 1996) 24 Feb 2016 - This is achieved through the application of liberal arts constructs, science, health and nursing theories, and the values of the Christian faith within the scope of nursing knowledge and evidence-based practice. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) Essentials of Baccalaureate Education  .As a result, there are increasing recommendations for effective teamwork in most organisations (Lawler 1993; Syer & Connolly 1996).Development of teams Over the last three decades, teams have developed to meet the changing and complex nature of organisational activities equine-research-inc.com/presentation/best-websites-to-order-a-custom-british-literature-presentation-1-hour-cbe-academic.Development of teams Over the last three decades, teams have developed to meet the changing and complex nature of organisational activities.Sundstrom, De Meuse and Futrell identified four categories of teams: production/service, advice/involvement, project/development, and action/negotiation.

180 The organisational context for teamwork Initially teams were created at the production level to generate products or services, often with little involvement of managers, support or office personnel.Employees decided on their division of labour to meet defined output quotas.These teams were commonly found in commercial airlines, assembly, construction, mining and sales environments.During the 1980s quality circles evolved as an employee initiative, to involve people from different work areas in problem-solving of quality and productivity problems.Although these teams did make decisions and advise management, their success was often limited because they did not have sufficient responsibility to enforce the recommended changes (Pearson 1992).

Later, project/development teams of white collar workers collaborated on assigned or original projects.These teams focused on innovation rather thanimplementation, and maintained a breadth of autonomy and an extended life span (Sundstrom, De Meuse and Futrell 1990).Teams that focused on action/negotiation were commonly composed of highly-skilled and specialised people cooperating in brief performance events.These teams often performed management functions through integrating ideas and activity across different functional areas (Mohrman & Mohrman 1997).In comparison to the disempowering nature of quality circle teams, self-managed work teams evolved during the 1990s in finance, business and manufacturing environments as perhaps a fifth category of teams (Dumaine 1990).

Cohen and Ledford (1994) described a self-managed work team as a group of interdependent individuals with sufficient autonomy and responsibility to manage a substantial but unique task-based component of the whole process.Team-members were multi-skilled, so they could move through all the roles/jobs (Pearce & Ravlin 1987).Participative goal setting and individual and team-based feedback were used to minimise the teams variance from their goals (Pearson 1992).Health care context Similar trends have been described within health care environments.Social and economic changes, together with enhanced medico-technical developments have influenced the evolution of health care (Loxley 1997).

Health care professionals have been required to integrate resource parameters into clinical decision-making as a consequence of increasing pressure to articulate the rising costs of clinical activity.Resources need to be focused where they add most value to the patient (Hastings 1997).Further, rapid technological advances have led to greater complexity and specialisation of health care.As a result, there are risks of fragmented care with more new services and specialisations and a greater need for collaboration.The collective knowledge and skills of health care professionals needs to be maximised to meet the increasing complexity of patients need (Loxley 1997; Headrick, Wilcock & Batalden 1998).

Teams therefore need to include the contributions and perspectives of many specialists, in order to enhance the quality of patient care and clinical outcomes (Horwitz 1970; Snyder 1981; Porter-OGrady 1997; Firth-Cozens 1998;Rissel, Holt & Ward 1998).181 Australian Health Review Vol 23 No 1 2000 Health care teams have traditionally delivered coordinated patient care (Kane 1975; Griffin 1996; Harber & Ashkanasy 1998).For example, Orem (1985) defined a health care team as an organised group of health care workers who have roles related to meeting the health care needs of a patient or a group of patients (p 298).Because health care teams focus on the interconnected needs of patients, they coordinate a range of services to meet the specific goals of individual patients (Maple 1987).

Patient-focused production/service teams have traditionally dominated health care environments.

These teams included diverse professionals who were all essential in performing complex and diagnostic interventions (Orem 1985).However, there are documented differences in levels of commonality, cooperation and coordination within these teams.Most commonly, these differences are explained across the range of teams described as multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary.Maple (1987) distinguished different patterns of communication and performance that represent an evolving trend.Multidisciplinary teams have historically been more common as they evolved from the traditional medical model, where medical diagnosis and treatment were the primary focus and the physician was the most important provider (Hastings 1997).

Each professional in a multidisciplinary team works in parallel, with clear role definitions, specified tasks, hierarchical lines of authority and high levels of professional autonomy (Ivey et al.Professionals often consult with patients individually and create their own goals and treatment plans (Griffin 1996).As a result, differing priorities between team members may result in inconsistent or contradictory communication to patients.Interdisciplinary teams are the most common type of team that rehabilitation therapists currently report working in (Mullins et al.

Professionals in an interdisciplinary team meet regularly tocoordinate treatment programs to holistically meet patient needs (Maple 1987).Goals are usually set collaboratively and intervention may be conducted jointly (Brandis, Murtagh & Solia 1998).Often, one team member is appointed to coordinate communication between professionals and the patient (Callaly et al.Interdisciplinary teams are well recognised as beneficial for patients with chronic and complex health problems (Ivey et al.They most closely reflect the characteristics discussed generally in the literature.In contrast, transdisciplinary teams are not common in health care, although their preferred use is increasing (Mullins et al.Participation in transdisciplinary teams often cuts across traditional professional boundaries, as in educational teams that meet the learning needs of children with disabilities.All members contribute, via consensual decision-making, to an individualised plan for the patient, and one or two members are designated as primary agents for intervention (Maple 1987).This level of collaborative practice maximises shared expertise while minimising professional autonomy (Ivey et al.Referring back to the categories of teams discussed previously, advice/involvement teams have demonstrated improvements in health care quality and productivity through using 182 The organisational context for teamwork quality circles (Barczak, 1996).

While project/development teams are infrequently described in the health care literature, current health management teams could be identified as action/negotiation teams.In these teams, clinicians have focused on delivering quality health care, while administrators concentrated on minimising costs and improving efficiencies, so that together they translated high-quality clinical care into value for money (Wenzel 1995; Adams 1996; Capko 1996).Further, Moss (1996) argued that self-managed work teams are emerging in North America to meet themanaged care demands for greater staff utilisation and more streamlined delivery of health care.Comparison of team categories Teams appear to be broadly evolving through five stages of production/service, advice/ involvement, project/development, action/negotiation and self-management in business environments.In contrast, teams in health care have traditionally focused on production and service in delivering coordinated patient care.

There has also been an evolution within production/service health care teams from a multidisciplinary focus towards an interdisciplinary one.This may reflect the way that health care is expanding to incorporate more holistic patient care.Different categories of teams are becoming more common in health care environments as the health care context changes.It appears that quality improvement initiatives are fostering both advice/involvement and action/negotiation teams.Therefore, it will be important to monitor the changing nature of teamwork in health care, before too many generalisations are made from business to health care environments.

Despite the differences in their evolution, there are common characteristics of teams that span both business and health care literature.

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Defining a team Specific definitions of teams abound in the literature.A baseline of definitional consensus is evident across the different types of teams and organisational environments.Katzenbach and Smith (1993, p 45) stated that: a team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable Обхват бедер, 68, 76, 88, 92, 108, 114, 118, 122, 124   Our clients can instruction reconsider from impromptu, proofreading, [url=http://termpappar24.iwopop.com/]write my dissertation[/url] formatting or editing   I totally told him to [url=http://girlmeetsdress.com/art/how-to-get-modafinil]read more[/url] and deal with it..Katzenbach and Smith (1993, p 45) stated that: a team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.

Similarly, Brill (1976, p 22) defined teams as: a group of people each of whom possess particular expertise; each of whom is responsible for making individual decisions; who together hold a common purpose; who meet together to communicate, collaborate and consolidateknowledge, from which plans are made, actions determined and future decisions influenced.

183 Australian Health Review Vol 23 No 1 2000 Across both definitions, six important prerequisites for effective teams are highlighted: a small, manageable number of members who have the right mix of skills and expertise who are all committed to a meaningful purpose with specific and achievable performance goals for which they are collectively responsible who regularly communicate, solve problems, make decisions and manage conflict while adopting a common approach in economic, administrative and social functioning.Further, Downie and Calman (1994) emphasised that each member must have a distinctive and necessary role within the team.Dunphy and Dick (1985) acknowledged the interdependent nature of team tasks.In addition, Ducanis and Golin (1979) highlighted the need for teams to share a set of norms to guide and limit activity.Hackman (1990) emphasised that teams normally operated within an organisational context.

How teams work Systems theory has influenced perceptions of teamwork.Teams are described by a threestage process where they are open systems utilising resources, communicating beyond themselves and producing outputs (Syer & Connolly 1996).Through recognising the common properties of parts and the whole, systems manage complexity (Loxley 1997).Teams, therefore, are dynamic systems that manage organisational change through their own internal and interdependent processes towards a coordinated product.

The technical and social aspects of teamwork are also highly interrelated (Pearce & Ravlin 1987).

A more detailed description of characteristic conditions for teamwork will be offered in a future article.The benefits of teams The task and social benefits of teamwork have been described in the literature.Effective teams achieve better results than a collection of individuals in situations that require multiple skills, experiences and judgements.Teams incorporate and balance a range of specialised knowledge and skills, so that each member concentrates on tasks that challenge his/her level of skill (Horwitz 1970).This ensures the maximum distribution of rare and specialist skills (Brill 1976).

The integrated contribution of people with different perspectives and competencies enables teams to be more flexible, innovative, responsive and efficient (Mohrman & Mohrman, 1997).Teams in business environments have been associated with high levels of productivity, quality, customer satisfaction, safety, job satisfaction and organisational commitment, and lower production costs (Kirkman, Tesluk, & Rosen 1999).184 The organisational context for teamwork Teams in health care environments have demonstrated better continuity and consistency of care through holistic discussion, better planning, enhanced problem-solving and reduced ambiguity between team members (Proctor-Childs, Freeman & Miller 1998).Patients tend to present with several problems that have multiple causes which can rarely be segmented and treated in isolation (Kane 1975).Usually, no one professional group can adequately meet all of the needs of most patients (OConnor 1994).

Therefore, just as patients health depends on their internal systems integrating well, a health care team acknowledges multiple patient needs and meets these in a coordinated manner (Payne 1982; Loxley 1997).Teams can adopt a holistic view of a patients health through wellcoordinated service delivery.Almost self-evidently, the processes of teamwork can enhance coordination in health care services (Birleson 1998).Socially, a supportive team climate promotes individual growth and wellbeing (West 1994).Teams can motivate, challenge, reward and support individuals (Katzenbach & Smith 1993).

Individual team members can create new ideas and solve problems collaboratively and more effectively through sharing information (Barczak 1996).As they participate more in decision-making, team members demonstrate greater flexibility and a collective commitment to behavioural change (Denison & Sutton 1990).Teams have developed visions and values into consistent action through building on a shared sense of direction and purpose among members.Reciprocally, through the generation of trust and confidence amongst team members, task performance has been enhanced (Katzenbach & Smith 1993).Specifically, in health care teams, members became more aware of their colleagues skills and were more respectful and appreciative of each other (Kane 1975; Brill 1976).

Team members also enhanced their personal learning and commitment to the team and the patients (Birleson 1998).Barriers toteam success are often perceived as difficulties with team structures, processes and in personal choices to work in teams.Issues of general applicability will be highlighted, before the specific challenges for health care teams are discussed.Mohrman and Mohrman (1997) emphasise the importance of a supportive organisational structure that encourages teamwork.

Boundaries between teams, unclear tasks and inappropriate leadership often limit the effectiveness of teams.Further, when individual members come from different units and have different levels of power, they challenge the organisational structure of teams (Payne 1982).In relation to team processes, West (1994) acknowledged that while teams may be more effective in problem-solving situations, they often took more time to make decisions.Team brainstorming often generated fewer ideas than individual brainstorming.Further, when individual decisions differed from those of the team, those individuals may not always respect the teams decision.

While team performance was acknowledged to be 185 Australian Health Review Vol 23 No 1 2000 superior to the average member of the team, it was often below that of the most competent individual.Practically, teamwork is also vulnerable to abuses of personal power, competition and hierarchical considerations (Brill 1976; Firth-Cozens 1998).Teams often engender a social pressure on individual members to conform, such that they feel obliged to agree with the group opinion, without sufficient external information or communication.Alternatively, some individuals work less hard when they know their efforts are combined with others (West 1994).Further, the extent to which individuals conform to team norms is influenced by professional affiliation and perceived status (Kane 1975).

Teamwork also raises some fundamental human dilemmas.Many people have an inherent preference between working with others and working alone.While a diversity of skills and perspectives is needed to managecomplex patient needs, many people are more comfortable mixing with those who are similar to themselves (Firth-Cozens 1998).Raines (1988) suggests that individuals hold different value systems and preferences regarding teamwork, and these may be in potential conflict with others or with the teams goals and values.Members who have hidden agendas and secondary goals may engender further interpersonal conflict.

In health care environments, team-members need to have resolved their personal needs for dominance and autonomy in intervention, as patients are often treated by other professionals and treatment issues discussed openly in team meetings (Brill 1976).Challenges for health care teams In addition to the obstacles described above, health care teams face other challenges in their organisational context, team structures and in relation to issues of professionalisation.Horwitz (1970) identified the challenge for health care organisations to define relationships between teams and the executive, and between team leaders and other staff.Teams do not fit neatly into many health care hierarchies, because teams include people of different levels of power and status.Health care bureaucracies also limit the flexibility of teams in responding to organisational change (Firth-Cozens 1998).

Problematic administrative designs commonly exist where team members have dual or inconsistent accountability.A matrix management structure is widely used, where workers belong to a hierarchical professional structure and are simultaneously operationally accountable within specialised clinical teams comprising many different professionals (Brandis, Murtagh & Solia 1998).Other systems of portfolio management also exist where team leaders are responsible for additional projects (Birleson 1998).In some settings, health care professionals caring for the same group of patients may be employed by different organisations and work to different standards (Headrick, Wilcock & Batalden 1998).

Problems with these structures arise when there are blurred boundaries, uncertain power relationships and individuals have to reconcile the differences.

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186 The organisational context for teamwork In addition, there are often individualised and discipline-specific reward, supervision and educational structures (Kane 1975; Payne 1982; Maple 1987).Traditionally, in most health care organisations the medical profession is dominant and other teammembers may be overly influenced by the medical subculture (Horwitz 1970).(1998) reported that in many health care teams doctors were responsible for most of the decision-making and they often discounted others views as being unimportant and unrepresentative   2017-12-17 daily 0.9 https://pongibove.com/thesis/need-to-order-a-leadership-studies-thesis-us-letter-size-11-days-standard-high-quality 2017-12-17 daily 0.9   2017-12-17 daily 0.9 https://pongibove.com/report/best-website-to-write-a-math-report-118-pages-32450-words-business-mla-without-plagiarism 2017-12-17  .(1998) reported that in many health care teams doctors were responsible for most of the decision-making and they often discounted others views as being unimportant and unrepresentative.

Health care teams are very dynamic, and they often need to renegotiate their structures in response to internal and external change.

In response, teams often adopt a continuing process of role clarification and redefinition as diverse groups of colleagues match personal characteristics with written position specifications.What is expected and necessary for a particular professional in one health care organisation may be questioned or forbidden in another, similar setting (Horwitz 1970) Should i get a custom liberal arts dissertation online double spaced 124 pages / 34100 words Undergraduate A4 (British/European).What is expected and necessary for a particular professional in one health care organisation may be questioned or forbidden in another, similar setting (Horwitz 1970).The role of patients and their families also needs careful consideration.With the rise of consumer advocacy there is ongoing debate about the inclusion of patients and their families within teams equine-research-inc.com/essay/geology.php.With the rise of consumer advocacy there is ongoing debate about the inclusion of patients and their families within teams.For example, in early intervention teams that span health and educational environments, Maple (1987) advocates for parents to be equal and contributing members.

This increases the sources for potential conflict, such that conflict may occur between any combination of the organisation, the team, team members, the patient and their family.Doctors have traditionally dominated health care with their specialised expertise.Currently doctors are being challenged to be more flexible in their working practices to enhance patient care (Abelson, Maxwell & Maxwell 1997).Over the last 40 years, doctors have progressively worked with other health care professionals in a more egalitarian and interdependent manner (Cott 1997).Yet, as other professionals work more with doctors, their cumulative attainment of expertise risks fragmenting medical knowledge (Horwitz 1970).

Generally, professional groups within health care have very differentcultures from doctors.All professional groups differ in their education, status, language and theoretical frameworks.Specifically, there are differences in professionals beliefs, expectations and accountability for teamwork.Each profession identifies their unique and distinctive knowledge and skills over which they maintain autonomy and control.Professional associations and schools guard and protect this expertise at the expense of both internal and external competition (Maple 1987; Loxley 1997).

Specifically, Qualls and Czirr (1988) suggest that different models of professional activity occur along continuums of assessment rationale, intervention priorities, levels of responsibility and the pace of action.Health professionals may also be influenced by inaccurate stereotypes of their colleagues skills and responsibilities (Griffin 1996).Ignorance, competition and jealousy can reinforce stereotypes, which may further erode professionals respect for and understanding of each other.Within this environment, conflict and negotiation over issues of role definition restricts collaboration and often reinforces professional boundaries (Ivey et al.Further, when members hold different views, they do not always listen to and accept the opinions of other team-members, cooperate or show 187 Australian Health Review Vol 23 No 1 2000 commitment to the teams activities (Hearnshaw et al.With the introduction of general managers to health care settings, many clinical professionals have experienced tensions between corporate management priorities and traditional clinical freedom and autonomy (Headrick, Wilcock & Batalden 1998).There may also be negative impacts on patients when their needs are subsumed by the internal politics of professional power (Kane 1975).Not only can individual responsibility for the patient be diffused among the health care professionals in the team, but patients may also receive conflicting messages from team members when they are least capable of dealing withambiguity.

Conflict and confusion can be exacerbated by logistical problems of scheduling, record-keeping and physical proximity.Summary Despite the many inherent difficulties of teamwork, most health care professionals have a personal desire to learn and they value meeting the needs of their patients (Headrick, Wilcock & Batalden 1998).However, it appears that effective teamwork in health care organisations is assumed and expected, often without sufficient consideration for the types of team required and the organisational context in which they function.There is a general transition through categories of teams in business environments in response to participative management structures, work specialisation and an enhanced customer focus.Teams have become important tools in promoting and managing organisational change.

While most research has been conducted in business settings, there is a need to investigate teamwork further in health environments.As yet, there is little documentation of the changing nature of teamwork in health care.Currently, it appears that the traditional patient-focused production/service teams are moving from a multidisciplinary to an interdisciplinary focus.Health care teams are also being expected to perform quality and management tasks in addition to delivering coordinated patient care.Perhaps optimal health care teams may be more consistent with advice/involvement and action/negotiation teams.

The business literature may be able to be generalised to health care if the significant differences between both environments are kept in focus.There appear to be several opportunistic strategies to promote effective teamwork.Although professional groups perceive different benefits and requirements of teamwork, it is important for individuals to openly discuss these differences.In this way, complementary values and attitudes can be identified as the basis for interdependence (Loxley 1997).Further, to prevent the institutionalisation of professional differences, team members need to focus on patient needs.

When individuals collaborate around patient needs they can generate a shared perception of what is required of the teamand how best the team can achieve it.Specifically, clinical pathways clarify how team members all contribute to meeting patient needs in clear and consistent patterns of work.Finally, individuals become more committed and responsible when they understand and experience the benefits of working in teams.In this way, continuums 188 The organisational context for teamwork of overlapping interests between professionals should continually be recognised and discussed to focus negotiation around patient needs (Kane 1975).

Once the historical and organisational context for teamwork is recognised, the characteristics and outcomes of effective teams complete a holistic description of teamwork in health care.

Ultimately, a conceptual framework for understanding teamwork in contemporary health care is needed to support and educate health care professionals about teamwork.Then effective teams will be able to consistently promote quality health care for all patients.References Abelson J, Maxwell PH & Maxwell RJ 1997, Do professions have a future?, British Medical Journal, vol 315, p 382.Adams TL 1996, Associations need to show team-based leadership now, American Medical News, vol 39, no 34, pp 602.Barczak NL 1996, How to lead effective teams, Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, vol 19, no 1, pp 7383.

Birleson P 1998, Building a learning organisation in a child and adolescent mental health service, Australian Health Review, vol 21, no 3, pp 22340.Brandis S, Murtagh S & Solia R 1998, The allied health BONE team: An interdisciplinary approach to orthopaedic early discharge and admission prevention, Australian Health Review, vol 21, no 3, pp 21122.Brill NI 1976, Teamwork: Working Together in the Human Services, JB Lippincott, Philadelphia.Buchan H 1998, Different countries, different cultures: Convergent or divergent evolution for health care quality?, Quality in Health Care, vol 7, Supplement, pp S627.Callaly T, Faulkner P, Hollis G, McIlroy D & Hantz P 1998, The development of a mental health service patient information management system, Australian Health Review, vol 21, no 3, pp 18293.

Capko J 1996, Leadership teams key to succeed with managed care, American Medical News, vol 39, no 30, pp 346.Cohen SG & Ledford GE 1994, The effectiveness of self-managing teams: A quasi-experiment, Human Relations, vol 47, no 1, pp 1331.Cott C 1997, We decide, you carry it out: A social network analysis of multidisciplinary long-term care teams, Soc Sci Med, vol 45, no 9, pp 141121.189 Australian Health Review Vol 23 No 1 2000 Denison DR & Sutton RI 1990, Operating Room Nurses, Jossey Bass, San Francisco.Downie RS & Calman KC 1994, Healt Use the order calculator below and get started! Contact our live support team for any assistance or inquiry.